Werke von Friedrich Friedrich (German Edition)
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Werke und Briefe
Winner, National Parenting Product Award As mamas, we all want our babies to get the best nutrition possible. In a time when Table for Two is the perfect cookbook for young couples, empty nesters, and everyone in between. This easy-to-read resource featur This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we kno This is a reproduction of a book published before This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pag We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide.
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Schillers Werke (Nationalausgabe)
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Schlangen und Schlangenfeinde - 1. Der Schwerpunkt des Verlages liegt auf dem Erhalt historischer Literatur. Wentworth Press. Entertaining Must-Haves. Best Bread Knives of Best Cast Iron Skillets of Best Instant Pots of Best Casserole Dishes of Once again, Herder had already set an example here—by both developing a highly sympathetic interpretation of ancient Judaism and forcefully criticizing modern anti-semitism.
In an early work on the subject of Jewish emancipation in Prussia, Letters on the Occasion of the Political-Theological Task and the Open Letter of Jewish Householders , Schleiermacher argues that Jews should receive full citizenship and civil rights, provided only that they compromise in their religious observances to a point that allows them to meet their duties to the state and that they give up such politically threatening commitments as those to a coming messiah and to their status as a separate nation. He argues that Jews should not have to resort to the expedient of baptism as a means of achieving citizenship and civil rights as some Jewish contemporaries had proposed , on the grounds that this expedient would be detrimental both to the Jews and their religion themselves and to Christianity.
In the latter connection the main concern he expresses is that it would further water down an already rather watery church. But another of his concerns is that it would in effect amount to yet more interference by the state in a religious mystery baptism. His proto-feminism has several sides. First, he encourages women to strive for goods that have traditionally been the monopoly of men. Second, as a special case of this, he encourages women to seek sexual fulfillment, and to free themselves from inhibitions about discussing sex.
Third, he identifies women as a source of valuable moral and intellectual resources for the benefit and improvement of society as a whole. One example of this lies in their natural aversion to the sorts of insensitivity and violence to which men are commonly prone, and their potential ability to restrain instead of encouraging or permitting these. Another less morally urgent and more localized example, discussed in Toward a Theory of Sociable Conduct , concerns the ability of women, due to their broad education but their freedom from the narrow confines of the professions, to direct social conversation away from limited professional concerns toward deeper and more broadly shared ones Schleiermacher is thinking here especially of the hostesses of salons of the period that he himself attended.
Yet another example can be found in an argument that Schleiermacher develops in his ethics lectures to the effect that women are by nature more attuned to recognizing and respecting individuality, whereas men are more attuned to recognizing and respecting abstract generalizations, and that accordingly one of the key functions of marriage is to bring about a valuable blending of these equally important intellectual-moral qualities in each partner.
It should be noted, however, that Schleiermacher in his later years tended to be more conservative in his views about women. Second, in On Religion he criticizes the deadeningly repetitive labor that is typical of modern economies as an obstacle to spiritual, and in particular religious, self-development. His proposed solution here is mainly a hope that advances in technology will free people from the sort of labor in question.
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His proposed solution here is mainly the sort of revival of a vibrant religious and moral life for which On Religion and the Soliloquies plead. Especially interesting in this regard is a work that he published in in connection with the plans for founding a new university in Berlin now known as the Humboldt University : Occasional Thoughts on Universities in a German Spirit, together with an Appendix on One about to be Founded. Schleiermacher and Humboldt both write in a very liberal and progressive spirit with only modest differences of position , and thereby not only collectively generated the model of the university that Humboldt helped to implement in Berlin and which thereby became the model of the modern university tout court, but also developed many principles on the subject that would still repay serious consideration today for example, Britain could learn a lot from them.
Indeed, Schleiermacher is in certain ways even more radical and progressive than Humboldt in that he, for example, explicitly calls for the university to be run on a democratic model and demands that students from the lower classes not only be admitted to university but also receive financial support from the state in order to enable them to attend. Schleiermacher also gave more general lectures on pedagogy, or the philosophy of education, in —14, —1, and —among which those from are most fully developed.
But by the time he delivered this last cycle of lectures his views had become much more politically conservative and orthodoxly Christian, so that the radical edge of his earlier work on the subject was blunted, the interests of the state and the church were now assigned greater weight as goals of education, and such principles as freedom in education accordingly underwent heavy qualification.
Later editions of this work, and the later theological treatise The Christian Faith , strive for greater Christian orthodoxy, and are consequently as a rule less interesting from a philosophical point of view. As this stance already suggests, Schleiermacher has a large measure of sympathy with the skeptics about religion whom he means to answer. But, at least in his early period, his sympathy with them also goes much deeper than this. Moreover, he diagnoses the modern prevalence of such religious ideas in terms of the deadening influence that is exerted by modern bourgeois society and state-interference on religion.
He reconciles this rather startling concession to the skeptics with his ultimate goal of defending religion by claiming that such ideas are inessential to religion. This naturally leaves one wondering what the content and the epistemological basis of religion are for the early Schleiermacher. In particular, whereas Spinoza had conceived his monistic principle as a substance, Schleiermacher follows Herder in thinking of it rather as an original force and the unifying source of a multiplicity of more mundane forces.
Later on Schleiermacher distanced himself from this neo-Spinozistic position. Indeed, he explicitly denied that he was a follower of Spinoza. His main motive behind this change of position seems to have been a desire to avoid the heavily charged accusations of Spinozism and pantheism—which is hardly an impressive motive philosophically speaking. What about its epistemological basis?
As was mentioned, for Schleiermacher religion is founded neither on theoretical knowledge nor on morality. So part of what Schleiermacher means to convey here is evidently some sort of immediate cognitive relation to some sort of object, namely, the universe as a single whole. This whole epistemological position looks suspiciously like philosophical sleight-of-hand, however.
Whereas the possession and awareness of non-cognitive feelings such as pains and pleasures may indeed be conceptually unmediated, beyond mediation by reasons for or against, and hence in a sense infallible, the possession and awareness of feelings that incorporate beliefs, for instance, the feeling that such and such is the case, does require conceptual mediation, is subject to reasoning for or against, and is fallible.
However, he also helps himself to the apparent epistemological advantages that belong only to non-cognitive feelings: non-mediation by concepts, transcendence of reasons for or against, and infallibility. However, he also arranges the various types of religion in a hierarchy, with animism at the bottom, polytheism in the middle, and monotheistic or otherwise monistic religions at the top.
This hierarchy is understandable given his fundamental neo-Spinozism. More internally problematic, however, is a further elaboration of this hierarchy that he introduces: he identifies Christianity as the highest among the monotheistic or monistic religions, and in particular as higher than Judaism. But this looks contrived. Moreover, even if one were to grant that it is, why do other monotheistic religions such as Judaism not share in this putative advantage as well, namely, in the form of their prophets?
But then how can a proponent of religious pluralism and toleration like Schleiermacher consistently see this striking trait of Christianity as anything but a very serious vice? This project already begins in a modest way in On Religion , where, for example, he tries to salvage the Christian doctrine of miracles in the modified form of a doctrine that classifies all events as miracles insofar as viewed from a religious perspective.
A similar project is pursued more elaborately and tediously in The Christian Faith. Schleiermacher tried in these lectures to combine an interpretation of Jesus as a mere human being with a claim that his extraordinary level of awareness of God nonetheless amounted to a sort of presence of God in him. This compromise was strained and implausible. Berner ; Dilthey  —; Haym  ch.
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Coseriu vol. Also helpful are M. Winkler and J. Kommentierte Studienausgabe TP. Brandt  ; Lamm ; Niebuhr The following are the locations in KGA for some of the less well known pieces referred to in this article listed in the order in which they were mentioned in the article : Spinozism KGA I. Life and Works 2. Philosophy of Language 3. Philosophy of Mind 4. Hermeneutics i. Historiography of Philosophy 6.
Theory of Translation 7. Aesthetics 8.
Dialectics 9. Ethics Political and Social Philosophy Life and Works Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher — was born in Breslau as the son of a clergyman of the reformed church. Nor is it to be explained in terms of the primitive expression of feelings. Rather, the use of inner language is simply fundamental to human nature. It is the foundation of, and indeed identical with, thought. It is also the foundation of other distinctively human mental characteristics, in particular self-consciousness and a clear distinguishing of perception from feeling and desire.
Language and hence thought is fundamentally social in nature. More precisely, while inner language is not dependent on a social stimulus so that even in the absence of this children would develop their own languages , it does already involve a tendency or an implicit directedness toward social communication. Language and thought are not merely additions over and above other mental processes that human beings share with the animals.
Rather, they are infused throughout, and lend a distinctive character to, all human mental processes. He often equates thought more specifically with inner language e. His main motive behind such a refinement can be seen from the lectures on psychology, where he discusses cases in which thought occurs without arriving at any outward linguistic expression. It has been claimed by some of the secondary literature that he eventually gave up this whole position e. In his psychology lectures, Schleiermacher argues that although thought and conceptualization are not reducible to the occurrence of sensuous images since that would conflict with the position that the former require, or are indeed identical with, language , the latter are an essential foundation for the former.
This prompts the question whether there do not also exist strictly a priori concepts, as Kant had held. In his psychology lectures Schleiermacher vacillates in his answer to this question: sometimes implying yes, but at other points instead implying—more consistently with the position just described—that it is merely the case that some concepts are more distantly abstracted from sensory images than others. The latter is his normal answer in the dialectics lectures as well. Human beings exhibit, not only significant linguistic and conceptual-intellectual similarities, but also striking linguistic and conceptual-intellectual differences, especially between different historical periods and cultures, but even to some extent between individuals within a single period and culture.
In this connection, Schleiermacher argues, plausibly, that the phenomenon of the linguistic and conceptual-intellectual development of cultures over time is only explicable in terms of linguistic and conceptual-intellectual innovations performed by individuals, which get taken over by the broader culture, becoming part of its common stock. This doctrine in effect says that the various specific senses that a single word typically bears, and which will normally be distinguished by any good dictionary entry e.
However, other types of conceptual relationships would no doubt be included here as well e. Shortly afterwards, it was taken over and used to similar effect by another of the founders of modern linguistics, Wilhelm von Humboldt. Schleiermacher also argues strongly for the unity of the soul or mind within itself: the soul is not composed of separate faculties e.
Schleiermacher argues that human minds, while they certainly share similarities, are also deeply different from each other—not only across social groups such as peoples and genders, but also at the level of individuals who belong to the same groups. He argues that the distinctiveness of individual minds cannot be explained by any process of calculation in particular, that it is a mistake to suppose that all human minds begin the same and only come to differ due to the impact of different causal influences on their development, which might in principle be calculated.
The following are his main principles: a Hermeneutics is strictly the theory of understanding linguistic communication—as contrasted, not equated, with explicating, applying, or translating it. How, then, is interpretation to be accomplished? KFSA This is another very important point. Historiography of Philosophy Schleiermacher applied his scrupulous hermeneutic method fruitfully to several areas of scholarship that centrally require interpretation.
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Theory of Translation As was already mentioned, Schleiermacher also develops his theory of translation on the foundation of the Herder-influenced principles in the philosophy of language 4 , 5 , and 7 , together with 8 , his own semantic holism, which exacerbates the challenge to translation already posed by 7. The following are some of his main points: a Translation usually faces the problem of a conceptual gulf between the source language and the target language as the latter currently exists.
But how can this possibly be accomplished?
DM 25 This solution presupposes principle 5 in the philosophy of language. Aesthetics Schleiermacher tended to be quite self-deprecating about his sensitivity to and knowledge of art, and hence about his aptitude for aesthetics e. Philosophy of Language Coseriu vol. Philosophy of Mind Coseriu vol.
Aesthetics Lehnerer ; Odebrecht Philosophy of Religion Brandt  ; Lamm ; Niebuhr Reimer, — This edition should eventually supersede the former one, but it is still far from complete. In addition, the following editions are especially useful for philosophers: [ H ] Friedrich Schleiermacher: Hermeneutik , Heinz Kimmerle ed. Kommentierte Studienausgabe , 2 vols. Psychologie , G. Leopold ed. Berlin: Realschulbuchhandlung. A further useful resource is: Aus Schleiermachers Leben in Briefen , 4 vols.
This is a translation of H. This is a translation of HK. Leslie Willson ed. Introductions to the Dialogues of Plato , William Dobson trans. Tice ed. Richardson ed. Victor Froese ed. Lawler and Terrence N. Tice eds. Blackwell ed. Friess ed. Louden ed. Tice and E. Lawler trans. Verheyden ed. Maclean Gilmour trans. Mackintosh and J.