Gangu no fu shohei ni (Japanese Edition)

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The even-mass samarium isotopes , The data have been analysed with an 'extended' optical model, where the intensities of the first maxima of the main inelastic channels are fitted in a coupled-channels. Identification of the lines in the L emission spectrum of cerium and samarium. The occurrence of a line at 2. N-[2-[4-[[[ Cyclohexylamino carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]methyl pyrazine carboxamide glipizid was explored as an electro-active material for preparing a polymeric membrane-based sensor selective to samarium ions.

When coated on the surface of a graphite electrode, it exhibits Nernstian responses in the concentration range of 1. The electrode shows high selectivity towards samarium over several cations alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions , and specially lanthanide ions. The proposed sensor has a very short response time pH range for at least ten weeks.

It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Sm III ions with an EDTA solution, and for determination of samarium in binary and ternary mixtures. Diffusion of samarium into cobalt in the reduction-diffusion process. The presence of metallic cobalt in samarium -cobalt powders is a major cause for low magnetic properties in magnets.

This paper intends to investigate the effect of time and temperature in the microstructure of powders produced by reduction-diffusion. This process, developed for the production of rare earth-transition metal alloys, consists on the reduction of the rare earth oxide with metallic calcium or calcium hydride and its subsequent diffusion into the cobalt particle. In the present work, a mixture of samarium oxide, cobalt powder and metallic calcium was heated to or C for 2 or 4 hours in a tubular furnace under one atmosphere of purified argon.

The material thereof obtained, a sintered mass is disintegrated by aqueous crepitation. The powder was evaluated in terms of its chemical composition, its samarium yield and the intermetallic compounds present. The samarium , oxygen and calcium content of the powders produced were adequate for magnet production. However, despite the massive formation of the SmCo 5 compound after 2 hours at C, final homogeneity is attained only after 4 hours at C, with the presence of SmCo 5 and Sm 2 Co 7 and the absence of the Sm 5 Co 19 compound.

Also, metallic cobalt and Sm 2 Co 17 were observed in the materials produced after 2 hours at or C. Pressure and irradiation effects on transport properties of samarium compounds with instable valence. Electron transport properties in samarium compounds with instable valence are studied in this thesis: from SmS in its integer valence phases at common pressure to SmB 6 compound IV at common pressure through SmSsub 1-x Psub x x 6 is presented [fr. Adsorption and the initial stages of samarium condensation on iridium coated by graphite monolayer.

Adsorption and the initial stages of vacuum samarium condensation on iridium coated by graphite monolayer valent-saturated neutral substrate were studied by the thermodesorption mass-spectrometry and thermoemission methods, and were compared with samarium adsorption and condensation on iridium. Desorption heat of samarium atoms with thin coating of Ir-C, equal to E approximately 1.

For desorption with Ir E is approximately 6 eV. Such a great difference in desorption heats is connected with the reduction of covalent constituent of adsorption bond in a neutral substrate. Samarium on Ir-C is found to be condensated in two states: loosely bound and tightly bound which sharply differ in properties. The tightly bound state is characterized by abnormally low vapour pressure. Possible nature of this state is discussed. Double effect on the condensation of the substrate valent saturation is noted.

On the one hand, the reduction of the particle bond with the substrate decreases their concentration on the surface, preventing condensation. On the other hand, the release of the valent eloctrons of adatous brings about strong lateral interaction between them, which in its turn, promotes condensation during eased migration on the neutral substrate. Samarium Oksabifor in the treatment of metastatic bone disease. Conclusions: radionuclide therapy in patients with BM can effectively suppress pain and significantly reduce the number of analgesics. Post-treatment patients, life quality statistically significantly improved.

Samarium has the ability to reduce BM number and intensity of radiopharmaceutical accumulation in spots in the control study. Band structures in near spherical Ce. Bhattacharjee, T. Datta; Ghugre, S. Other band structures are interpreted in terms of multi-quasiparticle configurations, based on Total Routhian Surface TRS calculations. For the low and medium spin states, a shell model calculation using a realistic two body interaction has been performed using the code OXBASH.

The samarium Grignard reaction. In situ formation and reactions of primary and secondary alkylsamarium III reagents.

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The samarium reagents have moderate stability in solution, and they react with a variety of typical electrophiles, including aldehydes and ketones. Pneumothorax is a collection of air in the pleural cavity. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax in the Department of Pneumology at the Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat with the aim to determine the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and evolutionary manifestation of spontaneous pneumothorax.

The study involved patients: men and 10 women years , with an average age of Chest radiograph showed total unilateral cases ; partial 10 cases ; localized 6 cases ; bilateral 4 cases ; right Immediate complications included: subcutaneous emphysema 5 cases ; infection 6 cases and 3 deaths cardiorespiratory arrest. Late complications included: recurrences in This study shows the role of chest drainage and monitoring in the management of pneumothorax to avoid complications and especially to prevent recurrences, with a possible need to resort to surgery.

Influence of pretreatment temperature cycling on the radiating defect formation in silicon doped by samarium. Full text: The raise of thermal and radiation stability as it is known, is one of actual problems of physics semiconductors. Recently it is established, that the rare-earth elements REE raise a stability of silicon to exterior action.

In this connection the investigation of silicon doped REE by samarium and influence on its properties of heat treatments and radiation exposure is important. In sectional operation the outcomes of investigations of influence of samarium on thermal degree C are reduced; deg.

C; deg. After each cycle of heat treatments samples cool fast throwing off in oil or slowly together with the furnace. Doping n-silicon REE by gadolinium and samarium was carried out during cultivation. The concentration of gadolinium and samarium in silicon, on sectional of a neutron-activation analysis was equaled 10 14 - 10 18 cm Thus the parameters of deep levels vary depending on requirements of prestress heat treatment.

For example heat treatment at deg. C essentially increments a velocity of introduction of and centre deep level of E C -0,17 eV , in comparison with a velocity of introduction of this level in samples with prestress heat treatment at deg. In samples n-Si doped by samarium effectiveness of formation. Statistical nuclear properties and synthesis of La. Full Text Available The synthesis of the neutron deficient La nucleus has been a puzzle for a long time. In the present work these nuclear properties have been measured and are used to investigate the synthesis of La.

The results support the neutrino interactions as a dominant production process for La. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes. The data require that samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by the p process associated with photodisintegration reactions in supernovae were heterogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. Other samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by rapid neutron capture r process in supernovae and by slow neutron capture s process in red giants were homogeneously distributed.

The supernovae sources supplying the p- and r-process nuclides to the solar nebula were thus disconnected or only weakly connected. Ultrasonic and viscosimetric studies of samarium laurate in benzene-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures. The values of critical micelle concentration increase with increasing amount of DMSO in the solvent mixtures.

The viscosity results have been explained on the basis of equations proposed by Einstein, Vand. Moulik, and Jones-Dole. The values of CMC for samarium laurate obtained from the viscosity measurements are in agreement with the results obtained from ultrasonic measurements. The results show that the soap molecules do not aggregate appreciably below CMC there is a marked change in the aggregation behaviour at CMC. Removal of trivalent samarium from aqueous solutions by activated biochar derived from cactus fibres. The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained fromOpuntia Ficus Indica regarding the sorption of trivalent samarium Sm III from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch experiments.

The effect of various physicochemical parameters e. This was attributed to the formation of samarium complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent. Enhanced electron-lattice coupling under uniaxial stress in layered double hydroxides intercalated with samarium complexes.

We have applied uniaxial stress to samarium complexes by intercalating them into the gallery of a layered material and by using a diamond-anvil cell at 28 K. Although uniaxial stress reduces symmetry and removes degeneracy, the overall number of photoluminescence PL peaks evidently decreased with the application of uniaxial stress. This contradictory observation is explained by an increased electron-lattice coupling strength under uniaxial stress. This behavior is also confirmed by time-resolved PL data. Synthesis of samarium complexes with the derivative binder of Schiff Quinolinic base.

Characterization and photophysical study. Statistical analysis of the data allowed proposing the metal: binder stoichiometry for the synthesis of the complexes which was one mole of samarium salt by 2. They were synthesized in aqueous-organic medium water-ethanol , isolated and purified two complexes with stoichiometry 1 Sm: 1 L1, complex 1 and 1 Sm: 2 L1, complex 2. These complexes were studied by fluorescence and emission phosphorescence at variable temperature.

Spectroscopic techniques used in both solution and solid demonstrated the formation and stability of these complexes. Luminescence studies indicated that there is intra-binding charge transfer which decreases the transfer of light energy from the binder to the samarium. Based on the experimental results, L1 binder molecules and complexes 1 and 2 were modeled that demonstrated the proposed Nc for each complex, as well as allowed to visualize the structural arrangement of the molecules, complexes and binder.

Similarly, technical For example, drafting or a Some examples will serve to illustrate the above principles. Employees of a fruit grower who dry The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious.

An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection.

In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron II and III phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage.

To educate is a difficult task but its results make efforts worthwhile. Many patients in Peru suffer from intractable bone pain due to metastases. Since radionuclides were used to palliate bone pain due to metastases in Peru. Nevertheless, years passed and Samarium use did not increase proportionally to the needs of people with cancer and bone pain, mainly the poor.

Educational strategies have been proven useful for delivering solutions to many health problems in other diseases and also in cancer. Health education makes patients and their relatives assume responsible care of their problems. The purpose of this work was to increase Samarium EDTMP use as palliative treatment in patients with bone pain due to metastases, using educational strategies as means to change attitudes towards this health problem.

In September , a task group conducted studies in order to apply several methods to achieve the goal of increasing Samarium EDTMP use. Educational strategies employed were performed to provide verbal and written information to patients, physicians, medical students, residents, pain specialists, oncologists and neurologists, as well as general public. Verbal information included radio interviews, television spots and a phone number in charge of two secretaries, prepared for answering and if not possible, a physician was in charge of attending patient consultation , e-mail and a web page for consultation.

Written material was delivered to several newspapers, including clinical use of Samarium , possibilities of being elected for treatment, benefits and risks and a photography of the product. Politics of the institution producing Samarium changed, in order to achieve minimum cost of the product and it was delivered to all publics at the lowest cost for a year.

Absolute densities in exoplanetary systems. Photodynamical modelling of Kepler- In favourable conditions, the density of transiting planets in multiple systems can be determined from photometry data alone. Dynamical information can be extracted from light curves, providing modelling is done self-consistently, i. We apply this methodology to the Kepler- planetary system. The derived planetary bulk densities are a factor of two more precise than previous determinations, and we find a discrepancy in the stellar bulk density with respect to a previous study.

This leads, in turn, to a discrepancy in the determination of masses and radii of the star and the planets. In particular, we find that interior planet, Kepler- b, has a size in between Mars and the Earth. Given our mass and density estimates, we characterize the planetary interiors using a generalized Bayesian inference model. This model allows us to quantify for interior degeneracy and calculate confidence regions of interior parameters such as thicknesses of the core, the mantle, and ocean and gas layers.

We find that Kepler- b and Kepler- d have significantly thick volatile layers, and that the gas layer of Kepler- b is likely enriched. On the other hand, Kepler- c can be purely rocky. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium oxides for rare earths impurities. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method is described for the determination of Sm, Eu, La, Gd, Dy, Pr, Ho, Nd, Tb and Y in purified oxides of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium. The method enables a simple, precise and readily available determination.

Dissolution of the samples is achieved with diluted hydrochloric acid The molecular structures of complexes 2 and 3 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. However, complex 3 is a homoleptic samarium complex of three bis-iminopyrrolyl ligands. In complex 2, the samarium ion adopts an octahedral arrangement, whereas in complex 3, a distorted three face-centered trigonal prismatic mode of nine coordination is observed around the metal ion.

KGaA, Weinheim. X-ray spectrum in the range A emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium.

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  • A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium A is presented, using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic considerations. The experiment results show changes in the fine details of the plasma spectrum for different laser intensities. Peculiarities of electronic, phonon and magnon subsystems of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides. The electronic, lattice, and magnetic contributions to the heat capacity and thermal expansion of samarium tetraboride were defined. Our approach makes it possible to adequately approximate the lattice components of heat capacity and thermal expansion by combining the Debye and Einstein contributions, which are based on the joint analysis of calorimetric and X-ray data.

    Separation of lanthanum from samarium on solid aluminum electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts. This paper presents an electrochemical study on the separation of lanthanum from samarium on aluminum electrode at K. The electrochemical separation of lanthanum was carried out in LiCl-KCl-LaCl 3 -SmCl 3 melts on solid aluminum electrodes at K by potentiostatic electrolysis at Determination of micro amounts of samarium and europium by analogue derivative spectrophotometry. Derivative spectrophotometry using the analogue differentiation circuit was applied to the determination of samarium and europium at ppm levels.

    By measuring the second or the fourth derivative spectra of the characteristic absorption bands of both the rare earth ions around nm, they can be determined directly and selectively in the presence of large amounts of most other rare earths without any prior separation. Further, aptly selecting conditions for the measurement of the derivative spectra, the simultaneous determination of both the rare earth elements was feasible. The principle and the characteristics of analogue derivative spectrophotometry are also described. Louw, W. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate EDTMP complexes of samarium and holmium are receiving considerable attention for therapeutic treatment of bone metastases.

    Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DEXA has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system Performance analysis of samarium cobalt P.

    This paper presents an analysis and performance of samarium cobalt permanent magnet P. The analysis and test results on the steady state performance of a P. PWM inverters are used in variable voltage variable frequency applications to avoid a double conversion process of ordinary inverters. In drives, they are used for voltage and speed regulation of motors. Use of modulation technique in inverters also allow to eliminate or minimize selected harmonics from the inverter output voltage. Production of SmCo5 alloy by calciothermic reduction of samarium oxide. Among the established permanent magnets, SmCo 5 magnet occupies the foremost position as it offers a unique combination of high energy product, coercivity and curie temperature.

    The SmCo 5 magnets are thus extensively used for high field applications. These are also best suited for use in environments where high demagnetizing field and high temperature are operative. Also, for applications where high performance and miniaturization are the over-riding considerations, the choice again falls on SmCo 5 magnets. The main deterrent to the widespread use of SmCo 5 magnet is its high cost. Both samarium and cobalt metals are high priced, and the magnets prepared from their directly melted alloy are thus naturally very expensive.

    An alternate process involving calcium reduction of their oxide intermediates has, therefore, been studied and the alloy prepared by this process has been evaluated and found satisfactory for magnet production. The process essentially involves compaction of the charge mix containing samarium oxide, cobalt oxide or metal and calcium metal and reduction of the charge compact at degrees C in hydrogen atmosphere, followed by water and acid leaching, drying and classification. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors.

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. Full Text Available The extraction of Nd OH3 neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y yttrium, Sm samarium and Pr praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done.

    Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. It is noticed that thermomechanical treatment training has significant influence on proof stress, critical stress and shape memory behavior of the alloys. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. STO film was smoother with roughness 3. In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical 50 nm and larger cuboidal particles nm of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

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    Liu Peng, E-mail: pliu lzu. Full Text Available he increasing use of rare earth elements in high technology industries needs to be supported by developmental work for the separation of elements. The research objective is fiercely attracting and challenging considering the similarity of bath physical and chemical properties among these elements. The rate separation of samarium and yttrium elements using supported liquid membrane has been studied.

    Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE with pore size of 0. Result of experiments showed that the best separation rate of samarium and yttrium elements could be obtained at feeding phase of pH 3. At this condition, separation rates of samarium and yttrium were Keywords: liquid membrane, rare earth elements, samarium , yttrium. Ordonez R, E.

    Mexico-Toluca Km Since gaseous-fueled vehicles are not required General requirements for disclosure. Except as specified in paragraph b of this section, the following A category of grapes one or more varieties identified as a type in the Special Provisions Leinweber, G. The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics.

    The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at and meter flight stations with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments three capture and three transmission using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2.

    The significant features of this work are as follows.

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    Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water D 2 O were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0. The systems cerium 3 samarium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water.

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C the solubility in the systems cerium 3 nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water and samarium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water has been studied. New solid phases are separated preparatively and are subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. The investigation results are compared with similar ones for nitrates of other representatives of lanthanide group.

    The systems lanthanum cerium, samarium nitrate-tetramethyl-ammonium nitrate-water. The method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C has been applied to study solubility in the systems lanthanum nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water 1 , cesium 3 nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water 2 and samarium nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water 3.

    Crystallization fields of congruently dissolving compounds with ratio of salt components in system 1 and ratio in systems 2 and 3 are found in the systems. New solid phases are separated preparatively and subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compositions of formed compounds are compared with the compositions known for nitrates of other representatives of light lanthanides. Preparation and biological behaviour of samarium hydroxyapatite particles for radiation synovectomy. The preparation and labelling procedures of Sm-hydroxyapatite Sm-HA are described in this paper.

    Hydroxyapatite HA was prepared and studied as a radiosynovectomy agent. HA particles were prepared from the reaction of calcium nitrate and ammonia phosphate at high pH Samarium labelling was done in two steps with citric acid. A serie of experimental conditions, such as specific activity, citric acid mass, radioactive solution volume, in-vitro stability, have been carried out.

    Animal studies showed a good retention in the synovium, with a very low extra-articular leakage over 6 days after administration. Samarium emits medium-energy beta particles an a gamma photon with a physical half-life of 46,3 hours. When chelated to ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid EDTMP , it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Slight and spontaneously reversible myelotoxicity was observed. Our preliminary results indicate that Sm-EDTMP is a promising radiotherapeutic agent for palliative treatment of metastatic bone cancer pain where a reactor is available and at a very affordable cost.

    Studies on the structural, optical and dielectric properties of samarium coordinated with salicylic acid single crystal. Samarium coordinated with salicylic acid was successfully grown as a single crystal by low temperature solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol and water in equal ratio. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been measured over the frequency range Hz - 30MHz. The decrease in dielectric constant with increases in frequency is due to the transition from interfacial polarization to dipolar polarization.

    The small value of dielectric constant at higher frequency ensures that the crystal is good candidate for NLO devices. Dielectric loss represents the resistive nature of the material. Use of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration of samarium , europium, gadolinium and dysprosium. A new preconcentration method of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction DLLME was developed for simultaneous preconcentration of samarium , europium, gadolinium and dysprosium.

    DLLME technique was successfully used as a sample preparation method. In this preconcentration method, an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent, disperser solvent was injected rapidly into an aqueous solution containing Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy after complex formation using chelating reagent of the 1- 2-pyridylazo naphthol PAN. After phase separation, 0. The main factors affected the preconcentration of Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy were extraction and dispersive solvent type and their volume, extraction time, volume of chelating agent PAN , centrifuge speed and drying temperature of the samples.

    Under the best operating condition simultaneous preconcentration factors of 80, , and 78 were obtained for Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy, respectively. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films CaS:Eu,Sm with different thickness were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition technique using sintered targets. A typical homemade deposition chamber and XeCl excimer laser nm were employed and the films were deposited in helium atmosphere onto silicon and corning glass substrates. Structural investigations carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy showed a strong influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties.

    The films grown had an amorphous or polycrystalline structure depending on growth temperature and the number of pulses used, the same parameters affecting the film roughness, the grain shape and dimensions, the film thickness and the optical transmittance. This work indicates that pulsed laser deposition can be a suitable technique for the preparation of CaS:Eu,Sm thin films, the film characteristics being controlled by the growth conditions.

    Effect of samarium in corrosion and microstructure of Al-5Zn Sacrificial Anode Low voltage is the latest generation of the sacrificial anode that can prevent the occurrence of Hydrogen Cracking HIC due to overprotection. The Al-5n However, the main problem is copper made Al2Cu intermetallic in grain boundary.

    Samarium is added to modify the shape of the intermetallic to make it finer and make the corrosion uniform. Several characterizations were conducted to analyze the effect of Samarium. Scanning electron microscope SEM and Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to analyzed the microstructure of the alloy. Metallography preparation was prepared for SEM analysis. Corrosion behavior was characterized by cyclic polarization in 3.

    The results show samarium can change the shape of intermetallic and refine the grains. In addition, samarium makes better pitting resistance and exhibits a tendency for uniform corrosion. Current density increased as an effect of samarium addition from 6x Ampere Al-5Zn Steel potential protection increased after addition of samarium which is an indication the possibility of Al-Zn-Cu-Sm to be used as low voltage sacrificial anode. Myelotoxicity of Samarium Sm lexidronam in patients with painful bony metastases.

    Ben Ghachem, T. Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the management of bone pain includes analgesia, radiation, hormones, radiofrequency RF ablation, chemotherapy, and surgery. Bone pain palliation therapy with radiopharmaceuticals is a cost-effective systemic therapy to relieve pain from skeletal metastases with a consequent decrease in morbidity and an improvement in quality of life.

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of myelotoxicity of samarium lexidronam Sm in patients with painful bony metastasis. Clinical follow-up was available for treatments, consisting on blood count each week over at least two months, in order to evaluate myelotoxicity according to WHO classification. Results: no patients had grade 4 toxicity after its cures. Moreover, we found that prior treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy did not affect the rates of myelotoxicity. Conclusion: multiple treatments with samarium Sm lexidronam had no significant effect on myelotoxicity.

    Patients with bone predominant metastatic disease may survive for extended periods of time and may safely be treated with multiple modalities of therapy. Rather, Asloob A. We also investigate the phenomenon of shape coexistence by performing the calculations for prolate, oblate and spherical configurations. For clear presentation of nucleon distributions, the two-dimensional contour representation of individual nucleon density and total matter density has been made. Potentiometric study of samarium oxides formation from its chloride in a molten eutectic mixture of sodium and cesium chlorides.

    Interaction of trivalent samarium cations with oxide-ions in NaCl-2CsCl melt at K has been studied by potentiometric method using electrochemical cell with two platinum-oxygen electrodes with a solid electrolyte membrane. The mechanism of the interaction and composition of the reaction products, depending on the medium oxyacidity, have been considered. Certain thermodynamic characteristics of the process have been calculated.

    Design of portable electrocardiogram device using DSO Cardiovascular disease has been one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac deaths in many countries, covering Indonesia. Electrocardiogram ECG is a medical test to detect cardiac abnormalities by measuring the electrical activity generated by the heart, as the heart contracts. By using ECG, we can observe anomaly at the time of heart abnormalities. In this paper, design of portable ECG device is presented. The portable ECG device was designed to easily use in the village clinic or houses, due to the small size device and other benefits.

    The analog front-end circuitry consists of three integrated circuits, an instrumentation amplifier ADAN, a low noise operational amplifier OPA, and a low offset operational amplifier TL Structural and luminescence properties of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses. The glasses were fabricated by conventional melt-quenching technique and then characterized by XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectra.

    X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. Various physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, rare earth ion concentration, boron-boron distance and polarizability etc. Reasonably high values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards their utility in the development of visible lasers emitting in the reddish-orange spectral region.

    Fluorometric determination of samarium and europium in rare earth minerals with. Faculty of Science and Technology. This communication reported the optimum conditions for the fluorometric determination of these ions, and the method was adopted in the simultaneous determination of samarium and europium in xenotime and monazite minerals. From the experimental results on the effect of diverse ions and the extraction pH of the aqueous phase, it became clear that TTA-TOPO hexane method was the best system for the determination of samarium and europium because of the highest fluorescence sensitivity of the ternary complex, and also because the lower extraction pH eliminated the effect of diverse ions.

    Moreover, the very high detection limit 2 ppb of Sm was achieved by the use of a red sensitive photomultiplier. Which was used at nm, and that of Eu 0. The procedure was established as follows: The rare earth minerals xenotime, monazite sample was treated with hot conc. Then the precipitate was filtered and ignited to give the rare earth oxide. Fifty milligrams of the oxide was dissolved in HCl and diluted with water in order to obtain the solution containing An aliquot of the solution 1.

    Then the fluorescence intensity of the organic layer was measured at nm for Sm and nm for Eu. Xenotime contained 0. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain spar. Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. The full genome of S. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi The cross sections for n,x reactions on samarium isotopes were measured at d-T neutron energies of Samples were activated along with Nb and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron flux.

    Theoretical calculations of excitation functions were performed using the nuclear model codes TALYS The results were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature. At neutron energies Full Text Available The computational thermodynamic analysis of a samarium oxide-based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting cycle is reported.

    The analysis is performed using HSC chemistry software and databases. The first solar-based step drives the thermal reduction of Sm2O3 into Sm and O2. The second non-solar step corresponds to the production of H2 via a water splitting reaction and the oxidation of Sm to Sm2O3. The equilibrium thermodynamic compositions related to the thermal reduction and water splitting steps are determined.

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas on the thermal reduction temperature TH is examined. Furthermore, the recuperation of heat for the operation of the cycle significantly improves the solar reactor efficiency. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model.

    Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B E2 strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. Development and evaluation of copper and samarium labeled conjugates for tumor radioimmunotherapy.

    Srivastava, S. The potential of utilizing receptor-specific agents such as monoclonal antibodies MAb , and MAb-derived smaller molecules, as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors has stimulated much research activity. The success of such applications depends on many factors, especially the tumor binding properties of the antibody reagent, the efficiency of labeling and in-vivo stability of the radioconjugate and, on the careful choice of the radionuclide best suited to treat the tumor under consideration.

    The radiolabeled antibody technique for radioimmunotherapy RIT , however, has experienced many limitations, and its success has not matched the expectations that were raised more than a decade ago. The problems that have been identified include: i degradation of antibody immunoreactivity resulting from chemical manipulations required for labeling; ii lack of suitable radioisotopes and methods for stable attachment of the radiolabel; iii in-vivo instability of the radioimmunoconjugates; iv excessive accumulation of activity in non-target locations; and v lack of radioimmunoconjugate accessibility to cells internal to a tumor mass.

    A careful choice of the radionuclide s best suited to treat the tumor under consideration is one of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunotherapy. This study evaluates copper 67 and samarium for tumor radioimmunotherapy. The increase in sensitivity and selectivity of reactions in which colored species are formed by the addition of different metal ions is an area of research that has recently been developed.

    This phenomenon, which is sometimes called cocolaration effect, has been explained by the formation of mixed metal complex. The authors found an analogous phenomenon of reactions forming fluorescent complexes. Instead, a fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon caused by adding Gd or La, Lu and Y ions to the system was observed for the first time. The intensity of the enhanced fluorescence of Sm III complex was increased in the following order: La samarium in ytterbium oxide with satisfactory results.

    A general reaction mechanism for the system studied was proposed. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetiumm and samarium The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetiumm and samarium These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use.

    Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals rats or mice , which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages.

    Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. Memory effect of calcined layered samarium hydroxy chlorides in aqueous solution. This phenomenon is similar to the memory effect observed in classical layered double hydroxides LDHs , where LDHs calcined to a mixture of metal oxides can recover their layered structures in aqueous solutions. In contrast, the recovery reaction of c-LSmH in water without any counter anions was unsuccessful and instead resulted in the formation of Sm OH 3.

    Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO2 coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from to deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below deg. However, for temperatures higher than deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO 2 monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films.

    It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK.

    The efficiency of devices based on [ Sm III ] was superior than that of known aluminum tris 8-hydroxyquinoline Alq3 and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed.

    Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell. A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond DNDs into samarium doped ceria SDC is reported here. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current AC impedance spectra of internal grains.

    The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Retention capacity of samarium III in zircon for it possible use in retaining walls for confinement of nuclear residues. Mexico, as country that produces part of its electric power by nuclear means, should put special emphasis in the development of technologies guided to the sure and long term confinement of the high level nuclear residuals. This work studies the capacity that has the natural zircon to retain to the samarium III in solution, by what due, firstly, to characterize the zircon for technical instrumental to determine the purity and characteristic of the mineral in study.

    The instrumental techniques that were used to carry out the physicochemical characterization were the neutron activation analysis NAA , the infrared spectroscopy IS , the thermal gravimetric analysis TGA , scanning electron microscopy SEM , transmission electron microscopy TEM , semiquantitative analysis, dispersive energy spectroscopy EDS , X-ray diffraction XRD and luminescence technique.

    The characterization of the surface properties carries out by means of the determination of the surface area using the BET multipoint technique, acidity constants, hydration time, the determination of the point of null charge pH PCN and density of surface sites D s. The luminescence techniques were useful to determine the optimal point hydration of the zircon and for the quantification of the samarium , for that here intends the development of both analysis techniques.

    To the finish of this study it was corroborated that the zircon is a mineral that presents appropriate characteristics to be proposed as a contention barrier for the deep geologic confinement. This investigation could also be applicable in the confinement of dangerous industrial residuals. Determination of the nuclear electric charge distribution of samarium isotopes , , , , by the muonic atom method. The theory of the nucleus-negative muon system in the case of electrical interactions is discussed.

    The interactions of muons with the samarium isotopes , , , , are investigated.

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    Nuclear polarization was accounted for throughout the analysis [fr. In late , the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NCRP convened Scientific Committee to prepare a report on the radiological safety aspects of terrorist activities involving radioactivity. The work of this committee was funded through a contract with the Planning and Preparedness Division of the Office of Emergency Management of the Department of Energy. The committee was composed of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in many areas in addition to radiation safety and emergency response.

    These areas included law both federal and state , public communications, and psychosocial aspects of such incidents. The statement of work focused the work of the committee, and the resulting report did not necessarily address all issues of such activities. One of the charges of the committee was to provide guidance as to necessary research and make recommendations regarding the present infrastructure with the responsibility for responding to such incidents. These issues include recognition of the event, the interface between federal, state, and local authorities, exposure limits for the first-responders, clean-up criteria, training and resources, the psychosocial aspects of such events, and communications with the media and the public.

    It pointed the way for additional studies and research in this very important area. Fabrication and properties of samarium doped calcium sulphate thin films using spray pyrolysis technique. The characterizations of these films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical measurements. Warren-Averbach analysis has been applied on X-ray diffractogram to determine structural parameters involving the phase with its amount, the grain size and the lattice parameters using Maud software.

    The surface topography shows a rough surface covered by densely packed agglomerated clusters having faceted and hexagonal shapes. Energy dispersive microscopy measurements confirm the presence of calcium and sulfur in equal proportions as well as high percentage of oxygen. Mandiwana, Vusani, E-mail: VMandiwana csir.

    Venter mrc. Sathekge up. Grobler nwu. Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology.

    The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously IV administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

    Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system. In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P—E and M—H hysteresis loops were recorded.

    Methods: patients with bone metastases were studied men, women; average age Patients and physician evaluations were used to assess pain relief. Numbers of metastatic foci and activity of ROIs were used to observe post-therapy change in bone scanning. Results: In patients, pain relief was observed in patients Persistence of pain relief was seen through 2 to 24 weeks. The mean relief time is 5. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate human stromal mesenchymal stem cell hMSC differentiation into osteogenic lineage is important for the development of anabolic therapies for treatment of osteoporosis.

    Overexpression of miR- inhibited osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs in vitro, whereas inhibition of miR- function by antimiR- promoted expression of osteoblast-specific genes, alkaline phosphatase ALP activity, and matrix mineralization. We show that miR- attenuates bone formation in vivo, at least in part by inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of miR- by antimiR- could represent a therapeutic strategy for enhancing bone formation in vivo.

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tantalum boat for the determination of yttrium, samarium , and dysprosium in a mish metal. The determination of yttrium, samarium , and dysprodium by means of graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry AAS was studied by a tantalum boat inserted into a graphite tube atomizer. These elements could not be determined by the use of a commercial graphite tube, In the atomization from a tantalum boat, better analytical sensitivities and negligible memory effects for these rare earths are obtained. The analytical sensitivities of yttrium, samarium , and dysprodium with the tantalum boat were 0.

    But in Ansais hands, these concepts took on religious connotations. Indeed, as Ansai grew older, he began to combine the ethical doctrines of Confucianism with the religious values of Shint. He equated the Chinese speculations on the universe with Shint creation legends and identified the various elements of the neo-Confucian metaphysical principles with the Shint gods. His amalgamation of Confucian morality with the Shint tradition of the divine origin of the imperial line was one of the philosophical roots of the later extreme Japanese nationalism and emperor worship.

    Ansai was himself intensely nationalistic: he instructed his disciples that if Confucius and his great disciple Mencius were to come to Japan at the head of an invading army, the students would be obliged to don their armour and attempt to capture both sages. Yamagas thought became the central core of what later came to be known as Bushido Code of Warriors , which was the guiding ethos of Japans military throughout the Tokugawa period and down to the end of World War II. A rnin, or masterless samurai, Yamaga early showed great. Yamaga soon moved beyond his teacher, however, studying Buddhism, Shint, and military science as well as Confucianism.

    Within a short time he became one of the most popular teachers of his time, attracting thousands of disciples. As a result of his fame, in he was appointed military instructor to the lord of the great han fief of Ak. Yamaga made important innovations in the study of strategy and tactics, weapons, and military intelligence. His work as a military teacher became one of his most important legacies; 19th-century students of Yamaga, though fiercely nationalistic and antiforeign, were among the first to advocate learning more about Western nations so that Japan would be better able to oppose them.

    Yamaga felt that those teachings were more appropriate to the samurai class than the watered-down Neo-Confucianist philosophy of Tokugawa Japan. Accordingly, Yamaga equated the samurai with the Confucian superior man and taught that his essential function was not only to keep himself fit for possible military service, but to justify the stipend his lord provided him with by becoming an exemplar of virtue for the lower classes.

    Without disregarding the basic Confucian virtue, benevolence, Yamaga emphasized the second virtue, righteousness, which he interpreted as obligation or duty. Yamagas critique of Neo-Confucianism first appeared in in his Yamaga gorui Yamagas Sayings , the summary of which was also published in three volumes under the title Seiyyroku Summary of Holy Teachings. His views were seen as a potential challenge to Tokugawa authority, and he was banished from the capital in the custody of the Lord of Ak and exiled to one of the remote corners of Japan. Yamaga became the teacher and chief inspiration for the future leader of the 47 rnin.

    Following Yamagas code, that group of samurai in defied shogunate law and risked their own lives to avenge the death of their lord.

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    • That incident still is one of the most famous in Japanese history and brought increased if posthumous fame to Yamaga and his ideas. Another of his ideas was that Japanese civilization was superior even to that of China. In his Chch jijitsu The True Facts Concerning the Middle Kingdom , Yamaga maintained that since its founding Japan had remained loyal to its divine Imperial line, whereas Chinas dynasties had come and gone. Furthermore, he argued, Confucian philosophy had been corrupted by metaphysical speculation, but Japan had remained true to the Confucian conception of duty.

      In the 19th century these thoughts helped inspire the militant Japanese nationalists, who in overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate and restored direct Imperial rule to Japan. Like his fellow Kogaku scholars, Yamaga Sok and Ogy Sorai, It came to oppose the official neo-Confucianism of Tokugawa Japanderived essentially from the writings of the Chinese thinker Zhu Xiinstead advocating a return to classical Confucian teaching. Through his hundreds of students, he exerted a powerful influence that tended to counteract the monolithic thought patterns imposed on the country by the Tokugawa rulers.

      The son of a Kyto lumberman, Jinsai turned his hereditary business over to his younger brother in order to devote himself to teaching and scholarship. He became known for his gentle manner and his dedication to humanistic ideals. Refusing all offers of employment from the powerful feudal rulers, he and his son It Tgai founded the Kogid Hall of Ancient Meaning school in Kyto.

      Tokugawa mould, being largely composed of the study of the

      It was run by his descendants until , when it was absorbed into the public school system The outline of Jinsais thought, which is one of the most remarkable of the Tokugawa era for its level of moral elevation, can be found in a small work called Gmjigi , a commentary on the writings of the Chinese philosophers Confucius and Mencius. Jinsai was concerned with what he saw as the underlying truths of Confucian thought. He tried to develop a rational, as against an authoritarian, basis for human morality and the pursuit of happiness.

      Ko gi gaku school. Trained as a physician, he left the medical profession in to study the NeoConfucian writings of Zhu Xi. He wrote about philosophical works, which stressed the hierarchical nature of society and translated Confucian doctrine into terms understood by Japanese of all social classes. His writings include The Great Learning for Women, a tract on obedience long considered the most important ethical text for Japanese women.

      He is regarded as the father of botany in Japan. A Buddhist monk of the Shingon Sect and one of the founders of early modern nativism kokugaku. Kei opened a new stage in the study of waka poetry and classical texts through bibliographic research and the espousal of non-doctrinaire interpretations, and exerted significant impact on Motoori Norinaga. Kokugakuin University. Saikaku began his literary career as a haikai [comic linked verse] poet, astonishing contemporaries with his skill at composing sequences of thousands of stanzas in a single sitting. Later he turned to writing ukiyo-zshi, a popular prose form which in his hands was elevated to high art through the use of literary allusion, techniques borrowed from poetry, an irreverent style and keen sense of the ironic.

      Saikakus highly entertaining stories were populated by merchants, rogues, misers, warriors, and amorous women such as the heroine of Koshoku ichidai onna [life of an amorous woman] who was constantly tripped up by her own lustful nature.