Eres el mejor, Cienfuegos (Contraseñas) (Spanish Edition)
But this upward mobility has also led to Garifuna language loss, as increased contacts with other groups, especially Creoles and Mestizos, have induced them to speak Belizean Creole English-based with growing frequency Escure , , However, many Garifuna communities are still mostly destitute, and emigration to the United States seems more intense than ever. In the Toledo district adjacent to Guatemala, Maya-Kekchi speakers constitute the majority, but the Garinagu primarily live in the small town of Punta Gorda also inhabited by the Creoles , whereas the Amerindians reside in rural areas.
This means that they are exposed to English varieties rather than to Spanish. The few Garinagu who live in the western Cayo and northern Corozal and Orange Walk districts are more likely to speak Spanish. What is Garifuna? Over the last years, the ancestors of the Garinagu have come into frequent language contact with peoples of varied linguistic and ethnic background. According to him, the Caribs attacked the Arawak settlers, exterminated the men, but spared the women. Following Adam, Taylor observed that the language described by Breton is Arawak, not Carib, and that the men had kept only limited elements of their ancestral Carib language Taylor , In the late s Taylor focused on the variety spoken in Hopkins, British Honduras.
This interpretation would suggest that, during the early stages of European colonization, Carib was the superstrate and Arawak the substrate, since the Caribs conquered the Arawaks. One might thus expect Carib lexicon and Arawak morphosyntactic patterns, or perhaps eventual dominance of Carib leading to Arawak obsolescence. This assertion has not been challenged, but there is some evidence that the Carib component is more extensive than previously assumed. It is essential to reassess the state of Garifuna, and the current nature of its components.
Is it a creole, a semi-creole, an intertwined language? The objective of this preliminary investigation is to provide some answers to these questions. It is a major challenge in the study of language death to determine who is a good speaker, as well as who still speaks the moribund language at all. When is change loss? And when is it innovation? I encountered many Garinagu who claimed they knew Garifuna, though they had not used their native language for a long time.
The collection of natural discourse is a lengthy, time-consuming process, but it is also highly productive, as it makes it possible to gain crucial insights into the actual mechanisms of obsolescence. I had established prior contacts in Seine Bight in the early s. My contacts with the Garifuna population in Honduras are recent Cayetano , Gonzales , Kerns But in Garifuna, there is a shift toward preverbal markers to be developed in Section 5 below.
Garifuna later acquired a full set of numbers through French suppletion. However, a full discussion of Carib elements cannot be given here. The features listed above are not consistently present in contemporary Garifuna. On the basis of recent observations, Central American Garifuna thus appears to include synthetic Arawak morphosyntax, as well as lexical and morphological Carib elements tightly integrated into Garifuna grammar. A more precise assessment of the extent of this combination must be left to further analysis.
This is so because i Indo-European items are combined with Arawak and Carib morphology, and ii some loans have been grammaticalized. Early contacts in the 16th century probably involved Spanish, followed by contacts with English, French, and their creoles. Finally, borrowed items may be so well integrated to the phonological system of Garifuna, or its antecedents, that their sources are not immediately recognizable.
Integration of loanwords Lexical borrowing is the intrasentential incorporation of lexical items from a language into the lexicon of another. Loanwords can be more or less incorporated into the base language. A distinction can be made between nonce borrowings innovative or occasional , and established items old and better assimilated. Casual Garifuna conversations read like a linguistic patchwork, as illustrated in the following sentences excerpted from my corpus.
A similar distribution occurs in longer texts, although the distribution of Spanish and English items varies according to the country. It is likely that the Red Caribs before African miscegenation and the Black Caribs interacted extensively with French missionaries and troops for as long as one hundred years from the end of the 17th century until their deportation in There seem to be two types of meme.
See my discussion in Section 5. Sa often occurs in interrogative sentences, but is not a required question marker. It also functions as a postposed particle that appears to mark structural units, and also carries emphatic value. This function could then be translated into a notion of accomplishment, hence a perfective aspect. The frequency and range of bwe in my corpus indicates that it functions like a highlighting particle. Such highlighting particles are common in creoles, and are also found in French.
Garifuna in Belize and Honduras 4. This is clearly represented in the presence of non-assimilated items, whether phonetically or morphologically, as well as in extensive code-switching. In both texts, loans constitute roughly half of the overall morphemes. French items, all established and integrated, are the most numerous, as they constitute about half of all borrowed items.
Table 6. Konsultar is, however, followed by the evidential particle -ne. Linguistic processes in language attrition It is well-known that dominant languages are largely responsible for the obsolescence of contiguous weaker varieties. In the case of Garifuna, I hypothesize that contact with the Englishbased creole, which functions as lingua franca in Belize, and with Spanish in Honduras, may have led to morphological simplication in Garifuna.
Although agglutination occurs, as shown in 14 , there is a clear trend in the language a away from synthetic morphology, and b toward increasing analytic morphosyntax with preverbal morphology. Example 14 illustrates a complex sequence bou-lumuti hamuga lumuti is a synthetic combination often attached to a verb that marks a combination of counterfactual and irrealis aspect.
Hamuga can also combine with other elements, as represented in the sequence lumuti hamuga. The type of complex synthetic morphology that is illustrated in 14 does not occur with high frequency in my corpus Escure ms. Based on preliminary observations, both Belizean and Honduran Garifuna varieties appear to mark aspect and tense with limited agglutinative morphology and a few regular, usually preverbal morphemes. To illustrate this trend, I will now focus on two items that are particularly noticeable in recent varieties because of their frequency as well as their syntactic behavior.
However, me occurs widely as a preverbal morpheme Garifuna in Belize and Honduras in a past context in my Belizean corpus, though not in Honduras. In order to go to Kalifuna, they had to go across in a canoe, then they walked nine miles, until they had passed by a plantation, then they planted cassava and plantain. Afterwards, they would walk back nine miles and take a dorey [to get home]. They would get home at dark to their children. This interpretation is supported in other Belizean texts, which for space limitations cannot be cited here. It is thus not surprising to see me shifting from a future to a past reference marker.
The Garifuna used in Punta Gorda appears to favor instead the morpheme buga as a marker of past tense. Kaba-ti buga ei? L-afara-ti buga aba hadagien megu ha? The 17th-century function has thus survived in Honduras. On the other hand, buga is rarely used as a simple past marker in Belize, probably because Belizean Garifuna has already borrowed a simple past preverbal morpheme from Belizean Creole. There is also evidence of increasing analytic, preverbal morphology at least in the case of me and buga.
If such morphological shifts are supported by a more complete analysis, they are indicative of language change. Some synthetic structures are replaced by others that are borrowed from the dominant language here primarily creole, or Spanish , resulting in analytic formations. But do such changes signal decay or innovation? Probably both. As Garifuna is losing speakers, those individuals who still use it albeit only sporadically so create new strategies and naturally rely on live models with which they are more familiar.
Ambiguity and multifunctionality are typical of language contact, and are amply documented in pidginization and creolization. A language typically recedes under the pressure of a dominant language that has acquired prestige, and it does so by massively incorporating elements of the donor language. In the end, this may lead to language obsolescence and eventual language death. One should not assume, however, that there are linguistic processes that are unique to language obsolescence. Language attrition is implemented through interference and code alternation that may also occur in situations not necessarily leading to language death.
Garifuna clearly shows evidence of many such characteristics. Massive population migrations that result in the loss of native varieties are sometimes concomitant with the development of new varieties pidgins and creoles. Parallels have been established between language death and pidginization or creolization. Language death may lead to language birth, as language contact precipitates the transfer of linguistic units from one system to another. Earlier claims that Garifuna is primarily Arawak may hold true.
Garifuna speakers have integrated numerous elements — both lexical and grammat- Garifuna in Belize and Honduras ical — that they accepted from other systems in the course of their peripatetic peregrinations over the last millennium. Some features of contemporary Garifuna suggest that the language is developing in a manner reminiscent of pidginization or creolization. I have here suggested that changes within the verb phrase in particular resemble the TMA marking in pidgins and creoles.
My discussion has stopped short of the claim that Garifuna is a creole. Indeed, Garifuna still exhibits a morphology that is richer than that of any pidgin or creole. Contemporary Garifuna thus continues to make active use of a fairly complex synthetic grammar while simultaneously employing more recent analytic structures. The support provided by both is gratefully acknowledged. I also want to thank Armin Schwegler, John Singler and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
I am especially indebted to my Garifuna friends in Belize and Honduras, who welcomed me into their homes, and patiently endured lengthy recording sessions. Cayetano Garinagu is the plural form that properly refers to speakers of Garifuna singular form. Honduran Amerindians live in separate communities in the interior. Other ethnic groups besides the Maya-Kekchi include East-Indians who speak Belizean Creole , Mennonite who speak German , and a few others Chinese, and Middle Eastern , who mostly speak the creole as lingua franca as well. Bonner makes similar observations in the town of Dangriga, a small town of Belize, though she assumes — erroneously so — that Garifuna is still widely spoken by children in rural villages.
The primary informant of this dictionary was Roman Zuniga now deceased. He taught me Garifuna in the early s. Zuniga, a powerful advocate of Garifuna, was already very aware of the waning of the language. Discussion of the putative occurrence of ergativity in Garifuna must be left to future research. However, when ergativity occurs, it seems to have a somewhat restricted range. Silibu is not recognized now by my Honduran respondents, who tell me that they use Spanish plata instead. They also tell me that aufuri is a term that they no longer use.
But many lexical items are stressed otherwise. Suprasegmentals are not indicated or discussed in this paper. Some Carib derivations may not Garifuna in Belize and Honduras have been assessed yet.
Reservaciones en casas particulares por toda Cuba
Each example is associated with four lines: 1 text; 2 source language provenance is discussed later in the text , 3 literal translation, with some morphological information; and 4 translation. Note that no source language is given for ma in 1 since it is a universal word.
Vowel nasalization occurs, but contrary to French, it appears to be a strictly phonetic process. There is an Arawak cognate uaiha Taylor The phonetic similarity may have contributed to the selection of this item. Adam and C. Leclerc, ix—xxviii. Paris: J. Adam, L. Aikhenvald, A. Bonner, D. Breton, R. Paris: Khartala et IRD. Cayetano, R. Garifuna History, Language and Culture. Coelho, R. PhD thesis.
Evanston: Northwestern University. Reprinted as Los negros caribes de Honduras. Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymaras Tegucigalpa: Honduras.
Conzemius, E. Crystal, D. Language Death. Derbyshire, D. Dixon, R. Aikhenvald eds. The Amazonian Languages. Dorian, N. Dressler, W. Newmeyer ed. Escure, G. Giles and B. Saint-Jacques eds. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Escure, G Sebba and L. Todd eds. York: University of York. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schneider ed. Berlin: Mouton. Mayers ed. The Hague: Mouton. Gonzales, N. Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnocentricity of the Garifuna. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Gullick, C. Exiled from St. Malta: Progress Press. The Carib Language. Kerns, V. Laman, K. Matteson, E. Matteson, F. Christian, F. Jackson, N. Waltz, and A. Wheeler eds. McMahon, A. Understanding Language Change. Honduras: A Country Study. Washington, D. Noble, K. Garifuna in Belize and Honduras Pelleprat, P. Paris [no publisher].
Pury, S. Renault-Lescure, O. Rivas, R. Tegucigalpa: Editorial Guaymuras. Schmidt, A. Stochl, J. Suazo, S. Conversemos en garifuna. Taylor, D. The Black Carib of British Honduras. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. Languages of the West Indies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Young, Sir W. Vincent with the Charaib Treaty of and other original documents. Young and B. Edwards eds. London [no publisher]. Virginia and South Carolina provided the bulk of the settlers — about half and a quarter, respectively.
Then, an analysis of the historical and socio-statistical background of the South Atlantic states in the late 18th century provides some insight into the kind of language restructuring that was taking place in this area. It is concluded that the emigration of ex-slaves to Sierra Leone may explain the similarities between Gullah and Krio. Clarkson was at great pains to point out the dangers and risks that the founding of a new colony entailed. Kitts Creole and Bajan cp. Baker The calculations were based on phonological, morphological, and lexical features. This invites the question of how the similarities between these two creoles arose.
In trying to explain the linguistic similarities between Gullah and Krio, this article provides some sociolinguistic background to a recently discovered diaspora variety of early AAVE, the language of the Nova Scotians who emigrated to Sierra Leone in Having left the southern states in the s and s, this group of African Americans was in fact among the earliest to emigrate from America. They are not, therefore, any longer discernable as a linguistically distinct group other than that they are Krios, as opposed to indigenous Sierra Leoneans.
However, the small size of the corpus some 12, words , and the fact that it is formal written language somewhat limits its usefulness. Studies on surviving diaspora varieties are not hampered by these restrictions, but they are faced with the problem that their object of investigation, though generally believed to be more conservative than mainland AAVE, is the result of some years of independent language history.
But this article provides information on the geographical and social origin of the NS Settlers, and applies this evidence in a new linguistic analysis of the letters. However, since the Gullah-Krio connection is the primary focus of this article, I will not enter into the debate about the origins of Gullah developed in situ, introduced from the Caribbean or ultimately even from West Africa? Historical background In the American Revolutionary War of —, the British promised freedom to those slaves that crossed lines and fought against the Americans. When the war was lost, the British evacuated many of these African Americans along with the White Loyalists.
There were several evacuation points, but the main Loyalist center was New York cf. In their negotiations of the modalities of the evacuation, the commanders-inchief of the British and the Americans, Carleton and Washington, agreed to record the particulars of the former slaves who were being evacuated from New York. The abolitionist Sierra Leone Company in London heard of the problems that beset the Black Loyalists in the maritime provinces of Canada and sent their agent John Clarkson over to propose emigration to Sierra Leone.
Of these, 1, set foot on the Sierra Leone peninsula in February and March By , their number had dwindled to The various scenarios that have been proposed follow two main lines of argumentation. Some scholars maintain that the formation of the language essentially took place in Africa. In this scenario, present-day Krio is seen as the descendant of a hypothesized Upper Guinea Coast Creole English the purported ancestor The Nova Scotia—Sierra Leone connection of all Atlantic creoles , allegedly spoken by creole communities in Upper Guinea in the 17th and 18th centuries Ehret , Hancock , , , , However, as indicated in the preceding section, the Nova Scotians arrived eight years earlier than the Maroons, and in outnumbered them by almost Note also that no link is shown in Figure 1 between Jamaican Creole and Krio.
As mentioned above, a substantial number of the Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had originally come from the southern Atlantic states, including South Carolina, where Gullah is still spoken today. Since a subgroup of these Black Loyalists formed the original Sierra Leone Settlers, it is conceivable that they can provide the explanation for the correspondences between Krio and Gullah.
In order to determine what role the Nova Scotians played in the history of Krio, the following sections will attempt to trace the ultimate points of origin on the American mainland of those Loyalists that traveled to Sierra Leone in In the diary covering his stay in Nova Scotia in — Clarkson —, Fergusson , John Clarkson mentions general musters of the emigrants prior to embarkation several times, but these muster lists have not been found so far.
Embarkation or passenger lists of the transports sailing to Sierra Leone in January have apparently not survived either, so the identity of the emigrants to Sierra Leone had to be established indirectly, by gleaning their names from a variety of sources, discussed hereafter. This list was compiled by Clarkson during his stay in Birchtown see Section 1 , and lists heads of household by name. Two names were extracted from Fyfe To establish their origin on the American mainland, these were then searched for in the Book of Negroes.
Spellings in the sources often deviate from one another the second variant in the following examples is that in the Book of Negroes , as indicated in Table 1 in the Appendix. Some of the variants are probably the result of mishearings or phonological spellings on the part of the scribes. Augustine in Walker 7, 9—10, Troxler 46, These are listed in Table 1 in the Appendix by state, county, and — wherever available — town of origin on the American mainland.
If the average household size of 3. There were thus two main areas of origin: half of the Settlers came from VA, while a third was from the Carolinas and GA, with SC providing the majority among the latter group. These areas correspond to the two centers of slave concentration in the late 18th century cf. VA This may be due to the fact that conditions in the South with its plantation economy were harsher on the whole. The majority of labor-intensive plantations were concentrated near the seaboard, and they would — simply by their numerical dominance — provide the bulk of runaway slaves.
Another explanation again concerns motivation, in that conditions on the large coastal plantations were harder for the individual slave than in the hinterland with its presumably more humane homestead economy. Thus, the urge to join the British would have been greater in the Tidewater areas than in the interior.
Although Gullah is today spoken in a very restricted geographical area, it is generally accepted that this creole was more widespread in the second half of the 18th century. It ranged from However, it is well known that the Black to White ratio varied greatly within individual states, generally with higher percentages of Blacks near the coast, where the plantations were larger, and lower percentages in the hinterland with its smaller farms.
But as long as state-wide statistical information on these is lacking, other sources must be tapped. Unfortunately, county-level data for SC and GA is neither available for nor for the ss period. It may reasonably be assumed, however, that the trend here was the same. The time that the NS Settlers acquired their language roughly the s falls into this period. The majority came from counties characterized by larger plantations, and about a quarter of them actually came from Gullah country.
As for the Virginians among the Settlers, the social situation in this state close contacts between African Americans and Whites on tobacco farms until about is usually considered to have produced closer approximations to English among the African Americans than in SC and GA. However, the speech of at least some of the Virginian Settlers may have been of a more restructured type than is usually assumed for the state as a whole: as in the more southern colonies, they came from Tidewater counties with a comparatively high proportion of the Black population see Table 2 above , suggesting heavier restructuring of English.
The possibility of pidginization and creolization in some areas of, or individuals from, VA is pointed out by Winford —1. These would have developed L2 varieties at best, and more probably pidginized versions of English on the Tidewater country plantations that many of the NS Settlers came from.
In sum, about a quarter of the Nova Scotians arriving in Sierra Leone in came from an area where Gullah or related varieties of restructured English were spoken. The other main region of origin was the Chesapeake area of VA with its relatively high Black to White ratio. Additional research into the possible former existence of pidginized and creolized English in Tidewater VA is needed, but given that a good number of the Virginian Settlers came from this area it is plausible that they spoke such varieties. A word of caution is in order, since there is a certain risk of circularity: as far as 77 78 Magnus Huber language restructuring or the genesis or existence of creoles is concerned, the events that took place in Sierra Leone and in the South Atlantic states are neither entirely clear nor undisputed in the literature.
Thus it would, for example, be problematic to argue for creolization in VA just because there is a creole in Sierra Leone and many of the Nova Scotians originally came from VA. Letter No. Boston King, —01—16 This short passage illustrates the non-standard quality of the letters. Only occasionally — as in the excerpt above — do they strike a personal note.
The formal character of these documents also becomes clear in the use of conventionalized address and farewell formulas. Pidginized speech such as the one quoted by Clarkson is likely to have been common among the African-born in the emigrant community. The authors of the 17 letters that I was able to trace back unambiguously to a state and, in all cases except one, to a particular county, are listed in Table 3.
Table 3 shows that, with over 2, words, there is a strong SC bias in this selection — twice as much as the other three states taken together. In addition, all SC writers came from the Charleston area. Thus, unless the identity of the scribe s is known, such letters do not constitute documentation of the speech of any particular individual s , but rather they are representative of the community as a whole — that is, if the scribe was a Nova Scotian.
Furthermore, in the case of the SC letters in Table 3, we can be almost certain that they were actually written by the individuals signing them. Given that such a task inevitably involved correspondence at least one of them was in all probability literate. Note also that there are no letters signed by Perkins alone but three signed only by Anderson. They may thus be idiolectal rather than characteristic of South Carolinian speech as a whole. Consonant cluster reduction. Hypercorrect spellings are not found. Standard English velar nasal realized as [n].
Front lax vowel neutralization before a nasal consonant. Table 4 shows the results for the same categories in the subcorpus, sorted by state and letter. Letter GA36 does not exhibit any of the contexts investigated here and is therefore disregarded in the table. That the Virginians among the Nova Scotians came from counties with high proportions of African Americans has already been shown in Table 2.
Again, the chance factor cannot be excluded since the number of tokens is quite small for some letters and the corpus is skewed by necessity, but it may also point to considerable intra- and inter-individual heterogeneity cf. This hardly comes as a surprise since the proportion of African Americans was generally higher in rural areas with their plantations than in urbanized ones. This could be an indication that creolization of the Gullah type was more widespread than is generally assumed today.
Conclusions A careful analysis of historical records is indispensable in the reconstruction of early varieties of AAVE. Extrapolation from synchronic diaspora varieties data can help in the re-creation of earlier stages of AAVE but should be supplemented by original historical data wherever possible. In many cases such documents are available in the form of sociohistorical information or as records written by speakers of early AAVE, as Sections 3 and 4 have demonstrated.
It is true that such data have their shortcomings, particularly for the early stages of the variety e. Collecting original historical data is often a time-consuming and sometimes frustrating undertaking, but if available data are analyzed with care they can add to our knowledge of the development of AAVE. This article has provided a historical and socio-statistical background to one of the earliest groups of African Americans that left the eastern United States and settled overseas, the Nova Scotians who arrived in Sierra Leone in We now have a fairly accurate idea of the point of origin of the Nova Scotians in Sierra Leone.
And seventeen of the letters can now be linked to their geographic origin. I am grateful to the participants for their helpful comments and suggestions. Special thanks go to two anonymous reviewers and Philip Baker, as well as to Michael Montgomery and Gerard van Herk for their interest and help, as well as willingness to share their data with me. The calculations actually yield a slight positive score of 1. Some names are the result of rather tasteless wordplays by former masters, a common and psychologically cruel practice among slave owners see Berlin —2. The Nova Scotia—Sierra Leone connection 6.
Assuming these proportions, 9 of the remaining 13 would have been from SC, and 2 each from GA and NC, respectively, which have been included in Figure 2. The total population is here considered to be Blacks plus Whites only. King had been born 28 miles from Charleston, and moved to the capital when he was 17 or 18 years old. He had some schooling and was able to read and write, which makes it very likely that he wrote his letters himself. That the NY letter is so close to Standard English in the categories investigated here is explainable by the low number of African Americans in the northern states, corresponding to better access to English other than plantation continuum varieties.
The standardness of the GA letters remains a puzzle at this stage of research, at least for the letter by John Cuthbert, who came from the coastal region bordering on SC. References Bailey, G. Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles. Baker and A. Bruyn eds. London: University of Westminster Press. Baker, P.
Berlin, I. Blakeley, P. Book of Negroes. Cappon, L. Atlas of Early American History. The Revolutionary Era. Cassidy, F. Clarke, G. Fire on Water. Clarkson, J. The New-York Historical Society. Diary of Lieutenant Clarkson, R. Freetown: Fourah Bay College Bookshop. Dodd, D. Historical Statistics of the South — Alabama: The University of Alabama Press.
Ehret, R. Fergusson, C. Halifax: Public Archives of Nova Scotia. Fyfe, C. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Grant, J. Greene, E. American Population before the Federal Census of Reprint Hall, R. This book usually ship within business days and we will endeavor to dispatch orders quicker than this where possible. Seiten: Nicht dargestellt. Seine Mutter stammt aus Paraguay. Barrios ist geschieden und hat einen Sohn, den er zu sich nach Deutschland geholt hat.
Seit dem 8. April besitzt Barrios auch die Staatsburgerschaft Paraguays. Er spielte in der argentinischen und chilenischen 2. Liga, ehe ihm bei CD Cobreloa der Durchbruch gelang. Zu dem chilenischen Erstligiste. Seller Inventory LIE Dirige: Juan Manuel Rozas. Madrid, Bien la cubierta. Pedro Salinas. Rafael Alberti. Emilio Prados. Vicente Aleixandre.
Luis Cernuda. Gerardo Diego. Elogio del gongorismo. Otros maestros. Otras tarifas: Certificado 72h. Certificado 72h. Seller Inventory ZP About this Item: Ediciones Orbis. Biblioteca Personal de Jorge Luis Borges. Barcelona, Argumento del Cantar de Cantares, copiado del nombre de Esposo. Del Maestro Fr. El Cantar de Cantares.
En octava rima. Muy Bien el cuerpo del libro. Muy Bien la cubierta. Seller Inventory ZV This bilingual landmark anthology contains the work of 30 of the major Spanish poets of the twentieth century translated by some of the major poets of the United States and reappears in print for the first time in two decades. Martin, Stafford, Strand and Wright, among the most important poets of their generation. Published by Compbee Editions 0, Spain. About this Item: Compbee Editions 0, Spain.
Esa pregunta se la hace el protagonista de esta novela que decide visitar a sus antiguas novias, amigas, conocidas y amantes. Y luego enviarles una carta? No siempre el encuentro con el pasado, con sus actores es gratificante? El Enigma de Dreida Entrelineas Editores. Novela amplia, con muchas facetas, donde Jorge Luis Borges es el protagonista. Donde Estabas Anoche? Donde salen las nueve lunas. Donde vayas te seguire. Dos Cositas. Drift away Amancio inst.
Drift away Amancio. Dulce arrebato. Dura como piedra. E Temenanki Studio Jazz. El Amigo Pancho. El Baile del Ula Ula. El Bantu. El Bodeguero. El Bohemio Me Mi Pueblo. El Boom. El Brujo de Guanabacao. El Brujo de Nuevo Paz. El Calendario. El Callejon De Los Rumberos. El Calor de tu Piel. El Carretero. El Chisme De La Cuchara. El Choclo. El Domingo de la Rumba. El Grammy. El Greco y el mar. El Madrugador. El Manicero. El Manisero. El Mulato Rumbero. El Negrito Parrandero.
El Palito. El Panquelero. El Plantanar De Bartolo. El Pregon De La Tumi. El Que la Hace la Paga. El Rey del Mundo. El Son de Baloy. El Son de la Milagrosa. El Trompo. El Tunel. El Yerbero. El Zorro. El amor no es un juego. El baile de buey cansado. El kilo no tiene vuelto. El novio celoso. El que la Lleva la Lleva. El que no Baila no Goza. El rey del brillo. El riqui riqui. El son de la madrugada. El tengo galileo. El viejo que yo quisiera ser. Elena la cumbanchera. Ella dice que me quiere.
Ella es una abusadora. Ella quiere que le den consejo. Ellas no lo ven. Embrace inst. En el Barrio de Versalles. En la Calle. En la Vecinda'. En la era de los ciegos. En mi Pobreza. Encuentro entre soneros. Endless song inst. Endless song. Entre la Espada y la Pared. Esa mujer El traguito. Esas no son cubanos. Ese es mi problema. Eso es Mentira. Eso no lo aguanto yo. Esperando Una Llamada. Esta noche. Esta vida. Estas Pilla'O. Este Palo Tiene Jutia. Este camino largo. Este son, homenaje. Estudiante Parrandero. Everybody inst. Fue el rey de la rumba. Fuego de los Andes. Fuego en la Maya.
Gentil Gaviota. Get in to your life. Get into your life inst. Gimen las rosas por una triste ilusion. Gloria eterna. Gosto Veneno.
Table of contents
Gozando en la Habana. Guajira En Re Menor. Guajira en Descarga. Guajiro en la Habana. Guayaquil Rumbero. Guitarra En Son Mayor. Guitarra y Quinto. Habanera Sola. Hace una semana que no te veo. Harina Con Bonitao. Hasta aqui llego este amor. Hasta que Salga el Sol. Hay Madresita.
Hearts Of The Sun. Herencia paterna. Hijos Na'ma. Hilo Negro. Hojas Secas. Holguin, ciudad de los parques. Homenaje a Benny More. Homenaje a Isaac Oviedo. Homenaje a Matamoros. Homenaje al Sonero. Hoy se cumplen seis semanas. Ingrata no Llores. Innocence Inside of ignorance. Jach'a Sicuri. Jacha Mallku. Jeitinho Brasileiro. Juana la Loca. K'oli Pankarita. Khari-Warmi Men and Women. Khatirikuy Herding.
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Kin Havane. Kocho Mogo Gentle Hill. Kolla Suyo One of the four Inca empire suyos. Kusga Quilla Half Moon. Kusga Quilla Remix. La Alfombra Verde. La Ayudita. La Basura. La Bicho festival version. La Caldosa de Kike y Marina. La Chica Senacional. La Chica de Nieve. La Chica del Granizado. La Ciudad de los Pregones. La Cosita.
La Duquesa. La Falda Cortita. La Famosa Prueba. La Fiesta de mi Tambor. La Fiesta es en la Casa de Juan. La Flor y la Hoja Seca. La Habana me queda chiquita. La Habana quiere Guarachar contigo. La Habana. La Invitacion De Tomasa. La Monterrubiana. La Mulata Santiaguera. La Musica De Mi Pais.
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- Living Celibacy: Healthy Pathways for Priests.
- Eres el mejor, Cienfuegos (Contraseñas) (Spanish Edition).
La Nave del Amor. La Negra Tomasa. La Prueba Del Ritmo. La Rumba te Vuelve Loca. La Sombra De Tu Sonrisa. La Superficial. La Ultima Rumba. La Ultima. La Vida De Homero. La Vida Sigue. La Visita. La Voz de la Calle. La banda de tlayacapan. La cachila. La cachimba.
La cafetera. La casa de Yagua. La chica de la "U". La cucharita Martina. La fiebre del mala paga. La gasolina se te acabo. La lucha del Greco. La novia de un amigo mio. La puerta del futuro. La verdad de mi verdad. Ladeira de Mangueira. Las mujeres sola. Lengua de Obbara.
Letter of Che to Fidel. Limpia Mi Son. Llaqui Phuyo Sad Clouds. Llora timbero. Lo Mismo. Lo Otro Lo Pongo Yo. Lo es Todo tu Amor. Lo que tu Esperabas. Loco de Amarte. Loco de amarte instrumental. Loco de amarte. Loli o Lola. Los Beodos. Los Marcianos. Los Refranes. Los Soneros de mi Cuba.
Los Velas con Mechon. Love lingers on inst. Love lingers on. Machu Picchu. Machupicchu Rimactampu. Macumba Salgada. Madeira que de Lenha. Malas costumbres. Maldicion Gitana. Mandada De Dios. Manuela y su Cafetera. Marea Alta. Mares de Inocencia. Maria La O. Maria de la Luz. Maria de los Reyes. Marina quiere bailar. Mariposa que vuela. Mask of Inner Thought. Me Gusta Tambien. Me Voy Pa' Moron. Me Voy Pa'l Pueblo.
Me aprieta bailando.
- Dragon Valley.
- Somebody Paints the Wall.
- Stanford Libraries.
- The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body?
- Viñales - Pinar del Rio.
- Pierre Bourdieu in Hispanic Literature and Culture | SpringerLink.
- laura solorzano (laurasolorzano) on Pinterest.
Me ensenaste a querer. Me gusta y no puede ser. Me saca de paso. Memories inst.