The Reluctant Converts
Both these stories show how Sindhi society is divided into castes with Sayeds at the one end and the Dalits on the other, with various Muslim and Hindu castes falling all along the hierarchical continuum. Sindhi progressive movements have had anti-pir, anti-sayed, anti-patriarchal, pro-peasant or anti-landlord and feminist liberating elements in it, reflected in the writings of Amar Jaleel, Noorulhuda Shah, Manik and Khairunnisa Jafferi, all upper caste writers.
But the anti-caste aspect, despite the equal pervasiveness of castiesm, is not prominent in their writings, showing the level of caste hegemony.
C.S. Lewis Onstage: The Most Reluctant Convert
This neglect of casteism by the Sindhi writers is rooted in their Sindhi nationalist agenda glossed over in Hinduised Sufism, the greater influence of the literate class of caste Hindus, the state narrative that divides society on religious lines, and the dominant culture of Islam that continues to believe in the superiority of the descent in case of Sayeds and Ashrafia castes, and the inferiority of Dalits. The Sindhi class that holds the hegemony over so called progressive, secular knowledge production is, in fact, crypto-Hindutvadi in terms of political ethos that either blinds them to casteism or proposes to tolerate it for larger pan-Sindhi trans-caste union tyo be restored.
This inherent tendency to find common grounds with caste Hindus, is buttressed by two other factors, i. This post-partition shaping up of the political culture of Sindh developed among socially ambitious Dalits an urge to Sindhize themselves while claiming Hindu minority status within Sindhi society.
Sindhisation was a process similar to Sanskritsation that was going on even before partition, but differed in that while Sanskritised Dalits upheld Indian nationalism, Dalits of Sindh praised Sindhi culture, preferred to speak Sindhi language instead of their mother tongue, and upheld Sindhi nationalism 3. Certain others, followed both Sindhianising and modernizing route supporting state and its ideology as the majority of Sindhis did or were made to do so by the state.
What is LPG and how is it made?
Education and merit was, and is still believed by them, the major modus operandi to become part of society, to develop and progress. They argue that casteism and untouchability can be defeated primarily through education, not through religious conversion or by politicizing casteism. This tendency to depoliticize any emerging movement within Dalits is there since the rise of Sindhi nationalist movement. Some Sindhi nationalist progressive writers agree that caste discrimination has been there, yet simultaneously they maintain that it is dissipating and can be further eradicated through education.
As a proof of it they persistently quote examples of individual educational achievements of certain Dalits. Taj Joyo, the caste Muslim nationalist writer, the product of Sindhi progressive movement wrote in Hemandas Chandani's Scheduled Caste activist and poet book Humerche Hoongar published in , said:. If I remember correctly, either Ganesh Mal or any of the friends present put up a proposal that 'we Meghwar are considered as lower class Hindus, by caste Hindus.
Therefore, our survival lies in converting to Islam'. There, I opposed that thinking that it is not the solution.
Because caste-based class discrimination also exists among Muslims. No Sayed Muslim will allow marry his daughter into any other caste, not to mention of Machi Muslim fisherman caste considered the lower among Muslims. Although the days have muchchanged now, but even then I narrated them the fiction story based on social reality of casteism among Muslims of NaseemKharal. Finally we came to a consensus that the solution of social discriminations lies in 'education and only education'.
Today I feel proud that it is the effect of my ideas and the fiction story of NaseemKharal narrated by me, that Ganesh Balani's four daughters have now reached the highest educational achievement:Shabnam Rathore made Sindh famous by doing PhD from Germany in 'Underground Saline Water'. Another Pushpa Kumari has done M. Sc from Agricultural University Tando Jam. Third daughter Nimrita, is a lecturer in Sindh University's microbiology department. Fourth Sushhma Devi who did M.
Sc from botany and serving as lecturer in Karachi. As it is evident, Taj Joyo suggested Dalits to get Sindhised, instead of converting to Islam, and that he made them believe, through his peculiar narration of Naseem Kharal's fiction the excerpt shared in the beginning of the section that the eradication of casteism is possible only through getting education.
But the Dalit activists whom he met, although they abide by his suggestion of getting education, and did not convert to Islam, most of them continued to struggle against untouchability and caste discrimination. Conversions of individual Dalit families, particularly the most poor families continues till today, at a slow pace though, with the relative caste discrimination among 'Hindus' being one of the major reasons for such conversions. Taj Joyo's attempt shows that , despite all the personal and social good of a 'Sindhi' patriot, how upper caste Sindhis continues to have control on knowledge production, and the construction of the narrative for Dalit consumption thus disallowing them to come up with their own alternative ways of tackling with issues that matter to them the most.
Upper caste Sindhi very artfully depicts the true picture of Sindhi society, but leaves the oppressed in the paradoxical state of indecision. He sympathizes with the oppressed Dalit and the women but leaves her alone in the blind alley.
What is LPG and should I convert to it?
Flattening of caste discrimination as an equally distributed social identity, hides the hierarchy of oppressions. This Sindhutvadi approach is incapable to see that the decision by the Dalits to convert is not simply a social but a political one. It is just one of the ways to get free from the caste based humiliation which is more deeply entrenched in Hinduism than in Islam. Education is the necessary condition, but not the ultimate condition for the eradication of caste discrimination and untouchability. Gopal Guru argues that caste discrimination and untouchability can be eradicated through the combined effort of Dalit and non-Dalit anti-caste activists for the moral-ethical reformation of society.
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Jean Goodwin - unknown. Is There an Advocate in the House? Schwartz - - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 1 The Seven Lamps of Advocacy. Edward Abbott Parry - - T. The basis of the slope analysis method for determining the occurrence of reluctant openings came from the realization that a linear relationship exists between activation I tail,norm and facilitation I peak,norm. This can be shown by combining and , yielding:. It was gratifying that the plot of experimentally determined I tail,norm as a function of I peak,norm actually formed a straight line Fig.
This can be demonstrated by considering what happens to the slope in two polar instances, as simulated in Fig.
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In either instance, the time course of facilitation, as gauged by the plot of I peak,norm versus prepulse duration D , will not change from that plotted in Fig. However, the kinetics of activation, as represented in plots of I tail,norm versus prepulse duration D , will change dramatically depending on the prevalence of reluctant openings in the prepulse.
First, in the case where reluctant openings fail to occur i. E , term ii in the plot of normalized activation vanishes Fig.
The word of a reluctant convert
Hence, in the absence of reluctant openings, the linear phase in the plot of I tail,norm versus I peak,norm will fall on the line of identity, with a slope of unity Fig. At the other extreme, if reluctant channels open just as well as willing ones i. In this circumstance, the linear phase of the plot of I tail,norm versus I peak,norm will be a flat line, with a value of unity and a slope of zero Fig. The slope analysis for the actual N-type channel data in Fig.
In this case, , , and can be simplified to:. Application of this relation to the slope analysis of actual N-type channel data Fig. Slope analysis may be applied to experiments with different prepulse voltages, enabling us to determine the propensity for reluctant channels to open at a variety of voltages.
F , and Fig. I , with slope values of 0. The population data shown below in Fig. Reluctant openings in N-type channels detected over a range of voltages by slope analysis. A Variable-duration prepulse protocol and exemplar currents, analogous to those shown in Fig.
Only the first 16 traces are shown. B Plots of the normalized time courses of activation I tail,norm and facilitation I peak,norm , taken from the same exemplar cell as in A. Format identical to Fig. Dashed line is the line of identity. The prepulse duration interval in D was increased in 1-ms increments. Parameter values for least-square fits in E were as follows. Outward currents in exemplar traces have been clipped. Format identical to that in D—F. Parameter values for least-square fits in H were as follows. Slope values, obtained as illustrated in Fig.
Smooth curves through data points were fitted by eye. These data indicate that N-type channels exhibit reluctant openings, with the propensity for such openings increasing with depolarization. B Effect of G-protein inhibition on tail current deactivation kinetics. Top Voltage protocol. Traces shown represent averages from three cells. To permit direct visual comparison of tail-current deactivation kinetics, records obtained after a 1-ms prepulse have been scaled up dashed line traces to match the peak tail current amplitudes recorded after a ms prepulse.
The absence of reluctant openings can be qualitatively appreciated from the almost complete concurrence of slow activation and facilitation at the various prepulse voltages Fig. E , and Fig. Format analogous to that in Fig. B, E, and H Fitted exponential functions, defined in Fig. C, F, and I Fitted linear functions were as follows. It has been noted previously Elmslie et al. This result has been interpreted as evidence that G-protein—inhibited N-type channels could open to a reluctant open state. In agreement with these previous studies, tail currents of inhibited N-type channels recorded after a ms prepulse depolarization, deactivated at a much slower rate compared with tail currents measured after a 1-ms prepulse Fig.
We further quantified the change in shape by measuring the difference in tail current width at half-maximal amplitude, which increased by 0. We considered two potential sources of artifacts that could potentially confound the interpretation of the data obtained using slope analysis. Time constants for slow activation were obtained from simultaneous fits of inhibited and uninhibited traces Fig. As postulated, the profile of time constants was strikingly different between the two channel types.
As previously demonstrated for recombinant N-type channels expressed in this system Patil et al. The key new findings were revealed by a modified tail G-V experiment and a novel slope-analysis method, both of which indicated a more fundamental qualitative difference in the G-protein modulation of these channels. In accord with previous terminology Patil et al. Here we explore both biophysical and physiological dimensions of the results.
First, we consider the implications for basic mechanisms of G-protein inhibition of channels. Second, we critique the data supporting differences in the prevalence of reluctant openings between channel types. Because the two channel types manifest a clear distinction in the prevalence of reluctant openings over these voltages Fig.
It would be reassuring to our conclusion if others had observed the same voltage-dependent pattern of time constants shown in Fig. At more modest depolarizations, the time constant of intermodal exchange has rarely been investigated, in part because of the overlap between the kinetics of slow activation and voltage-dependent inactivation.
Because of the markedly greater voltage dependence of such kinetics in the N-type channel, the time constants for the two channel types converged at more positive voltages. The strong voltage dependence of N-type channel kinetics over a range of modest potentials is in overall agreement with previous analysis in NG cells Kasai In short, previous results generally support the profile of time constants observed in Fig.
The configuration of time constants for intermodal exchange Fig. Zhang et al. Our observations reconcile the differing perspectives, and support the explanation of Zhang et al. Although the tail G-V experiment and slope-analysis method provide arguably compelling support for this suggestion, the evidence is nevertheless indirect and dependent on several assumptions. We review these assumptions, so as to gauge the strength of our suggestion and to facilitate comparison with future, more direct experiments.
Regarding the tail G-V experiments Fig. The assumptions underlying the slope-analysis method are more subtle. First, we postulated that no reluctant openings occurred during the modest mV depolarization in the test pulse e. However, the results of the tail G-V experiments would still support a strong difference in the prevalence of reluctant openings between channel types. Second, the equations describing activation presume that if reluctant channels can open during a prepulse, their conditional probability of occurrence, given occupancy within the reluctant mode, has reached steady state during the course of the slow phase of activation.
Finally, the equations describing activation do not consider the possibility that reluctant openings may manifest a smaller unitary conductance Kuo and Bean , although fragmentary single-channel experiments have so far failed to confirm such a difference in unitary conductance Patil et al. While the assumptions underlying our whole-cell analysis seem quite reasonable, the present experiments urgently underscore the need for single-channel experiments to directly establish the core dichotomy in the expression of reluctant openings.
In two previous single-channel studies of N-type channels, the major effect of G-protein activation was to delay the time to first opening Carabelli et al. One preliminary study of single N-type channels Lee and Elmslie did report gating consistent with reluctant opening. The voltage dependence of reluctant openings in inhibited N-type channels, as presented here Fig. As unitary current amplitude diminishes with increasing depolarization, it will be challenging to resolve single-channel events at the positive potentials where appreciable reluctant openings would be predicted.
We are, however, encouraged by our preliminary single-channel evidence that reluctant openings can be detected in G-protein—inhibited N-type channels at higher voltages, using quartz pipette technology to aid resolution Levis and Rae ; Colecraft et al. Using selective toxin blockade of distinct types of calcium channels, complementary studies have focused on the functional contribution of different calcium channels to synaptic transmission at a variety of synapses.
If reluctant openings are not evoked during an action potential, then G-protein inhibition would simply limit the number of willing channels. By contrast, if both reluctant and willing openings are evoked during an action potential, then the inhibited waveform would reflect the properties of gating transitions surrounding both willing and reluctant open states. Given the potential functional impact of reluctant openings, it will be critical to determine whether they actually do occur in N-type channels driven by physiological action potentials. Although the present results suggest that such openings occur at physiologically relevant potentials, it remains to be shown whether they can activate fast enough to occur during the brief 1—4-ms duration of action potentials.
The outcome will be critically dependent on the first latency of inhibited channels.