The Great American Biotic Interchange (Topics in Geobiology)
One theme that is at the heart of the series is the interplay between the history of life and the changing environment. This is treated in skeletal mineralization and how such skeletons record environmental signals and animal-sediment relationships in the marine environment. Newsletter Google 4.
Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Case, Goin, and Woodburne summarized pre- vious data on the Caribbean tectonics and discussed several alternatives regard- ing land bridges between the Americas.
Great American Interchange
They concluded that the best candidate for a pathway for biotic dispersal was the Aves Ridge and adjacent Cuba during the Campanian and especially the Maastrichtian. A major consequence of this development was the arrival of the irst therian mammals in South America but see Rich , as well as other vertebrate groups e. Rage reported at least one group of snakes Boidae as having dispersed northward at this time. The South America and Antarctica connection was interrupted by the early Eocene Patagonian climates from the early Paleocene through the late Eocene were warm-temperate Bijl et al.
As mentioned, no unequivocal therian remains have been discovered in the South American Mesozoic. The earliest known Cenozoic therian is, most prob- ably, a polydolopimorphian marsupial represented by an isolated lower molar. Its discovery strongly suggests that the diversiication of metatherians in South America can be traced back to the Late probably latest Cretaceous.
Three major events in the evolution of southern South American mammals took place during the Early South American Phase: 1 the rapid decline and extinction of the nontherian native lineages, probably by mid-Paleocene times but see Goin et al. During the Paleocene and early Eocene, marsupials were dominant in Pa- tagonian faunas.
Great American Interchange - Wikiwand
Tiupampian marsupials early Paleocene reveal that they had already undergone a rapid diversiication, probably in the Late Cretaceous Muizon Mid-Paleocene marsupials of Peligran age are already quite derived. Between the late Paleocene and early middle Eocene, polydolopimor- phians reached their climax. A wide variety of opossum-like marsupials e. The earliest microbiotherians and paucituberculates are also of Itaboraian age, and sparassodonts of this time are small-to-medium in size.
Marsupials of this phase exploited a variety of adaptive zones and diets: insectivorous, omnivorous, frugivorous, carnivo- rous, or a combination of them. The earliest record of eutherians dates from the early Paleocene of Tiu- pampa and pertains to North American groups Pantodonta, Mioclaenidae.
Medial Paleocene to early Eocene ungulates developed a wide variety of forms that characterized the irst radiation of native South American ungulates. They developed low-crowned dentitions of various types: strictly bunodont i. Woodburne, and Thomas Martin e. About the time of the late Eocene-early Oligocene global cooling see later , there was an in- crease in grass phytoliths and volcanic activity, which generated volcanic ash that deposited upon vegetation. Both generated positive selective pressures in favor of higher-crowned dentitions among ungulates Madden et al.
A marked biogeographic distinction between northern Neotropical and southern Andean regions was also apparent during this phase. Marsupials are the best represented taxa in both local associations. The opening of the Southern Ocean with the Drake Passage i. The result was the irst major expansion of Antarctic ice in the Cenozoic. The sharp decrease in global temperatures was the primary driving force causing generalized turnovers in Paleogene marine and terrestrial biota. Probably, soon after these shifts, a major dispersal event occurred: the arrival of caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates in South America.
They regarded the Hinge as equally important as other contemporary, major biotic events as the European Grand Coupure or the Central Asian Mongolian Remodeling. This relects a modernization of the marsupial fauna and extinction of some of the earlier, archaic taxa. Records of the irst modern opossums Didelphidae sensu stricto, possibly including also a caluromyine , the irst Thylacosmili- dae sparassodonts, as well as major radiations within the Microbiotheria and Paucituberculata all appear by the early Miocene Colhuehuapian, 19 —20 Ma; Goin et al.
Among native ungulates, there was a noticeable increase in the diversity of hypsodont notoungulates e. Low-crowned, bunodont ungulate types i. In some lineages, limb specialization was convergent on that of equids; lophoselenodont dentitions e. The oldest records of caviomorphs come from Tinguirirican levels of central Chile Wyss et al.
Both lineages probably arrived from Africa, although there is still debate on Uncorrected Proofs for Review Only C The early records of caviomorphs are far more abundant than those of platyrrhines. Recently, Vucetich et al. Although the Panamanian region was an upland isthmus as early as 6 Ma, permitting limited dispersals from about that time, the main pulse of the interchange began about 2. Traditional views on the GABI regard this process as a response to the tectonic closure of the Panama- nian seaway.
The Neogene time scale is after Lourens et al. Global temperature scale is after Zachos et al. Woodburne, and Thomas Martin Figure 3. A more persuasive interpretation now seems to be that these dispersal episodes relect the onset and presence of glacial conditions in the Northern Hemisphere Webb This stems not only from paleobotanical and other evidence, but also relects the more temperate, versus tropical, adaptations of the taxa making the crossings.
In fact, Coates et al. Island-hopping across short marine barri- ers apparently did not deter these edentates from colonizing. As summarized by Morgan , a variety of other edentates entered North America and successfully inhabited temperate regions across the southern part of North America.
Also at about 7. Sigmodontine rodents apparently dispersed to South America by 6 Ma, and at about 4. Somewhat later 3. This is one of a number of instances Flynn et al. This genus, a hydrochoerid rodent, is considered to have been an inhabitant of tropical to subtropical conditions.
The peccary Platygonus is recorded in Argentina at 3. Just prior to GABI, at 3. As documented by the GABI chronology, at least part of the tropical rain forests of the isthmus shifted toward savanna-like habitat Webb, ; this is relected in the ecologic diversity of the dispersing taxa. South American records of mustelid and canid carnivores, equid perissodactyls, and a gom- phothere appear at about 2. An immigrant to North America at about this time 2.
Woodburne, and Thomas Martin along with its through-moving relatives Holmesina, armadillos Dasypus, Pachy- armatherium , and a megatheriid Eremotherium. Of these, Dasypus still inhabits temperate regions in the Gulf Coast region and formerly occurred as far north as Iowa in the Pleistocene Morgan Overall, this appears to be a savanna- adapted group of taxa.
An apparent gap in dispersals lasted from 2. Hydrochoerus was present in Florida about 2. But about 1. Together, they document the presence of or perhaps a return to savanna-like conditions in the Isthmian region and adjacent South America. Another apparent gap in dispersal lasted from just after 1.
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At about 0. In summary, the GABI can be resolved as a series of pulses, possibly relect- ing glacial versus interglacial conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. A major exchange from 2. A more limited exchange at 0. The last major GABI at 0. The foregoing indicates that more taxa went south than went north; Webb explained this numerical domi- Uncorrected Proofs for Review Only C Beginning in , K. Campbell and colleagues have presented a series of articles that propose a modiication of the early phase of the aforementioned scenario.
In essence, the gomphotheriid proboscidean Amahuacatherium peru- vium is considered to have entered South America in the late Miocene, where it is found in Peruvian sediments along with mammal fossils of Huayquerian age Campbell, Frailey, and Romero-Pittman , The paleontological age is supported by both radioisotopic and paleomagnetic evidence Campbell et al.
Campbell, Frailey, and Romero-Pittman also suggest that camels, peccaries, and tapirs are part of the immigrant mammalian component at this time. Although the chronologic setting for these taxa seems established, a persistent diiculty is that there is as yet no subsequent record of their pre-GABI presence anywhere in South America e. Thus, the intrigu- ing anomaly suggested by Amahuacatheriuim and its faunal associates remains incompletely understood. Goin; PIP Whatever the merits of this contri- bution may be, the ideas presented here owe much to numerous talks and discussions over the last twenty years with Rosendo Pascual, to whom this work is dedicated.
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Ecogeography and the great american interchange
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- History of Terrestrial Mammals in South America : Thomas Defler : ;
Case, J. Goin, and M. Cifelli, R. Kay, R.
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