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A person is incompetent as a witness until he reaches the age of Between the ages of 13 and 20, he is competent as a witness with regard to movable property, but in respect of immovable property he is competent only if he is found to have the necessary understanding and experience BB b; Yad, Edut.

From the age of 20, all disqualification by reason of age is removed. According to the Bible, "the wicked" or "the guilty" are unjust witnesses Ex. They may be divided into five groups: criminals, swindlers, perjurers, illiterates, and informers. Into the category of swindlers fall thieves and robbers Sh. Tax collectors who do not work for a fixed salary, but receive as remuneration a portion of the moneys collected, are suspected of appropriating more than is due to them, and therefore are incompetent witnesses Yad, loc.

Once a witness was found guilty of perjury, he would no longer be a competent witness, even after he had made good any damage caused by his false testimony Sanh. A man who has no inkling of Bible and Mishnah, nor of civilized standards of conduct derekh erez , is presumed to be idle and disorderly Kid. This presumption is rebuttable by evidence that, notwithstanding the man's illiteracy, his conduct is irreproachable Yad, Edut —4; Sh.

A fortiori, agnostics eppikoresim and heretics, including those who transgress law or ritual from conviction or malice, are wholly and irrevocably disqualified Yad, Edut ; Sh. It is presumed that people who do not conform to the conventions of society, for example, by eating in the streets Kid. The biblical injunction that parents shall not be put to death "for" their children, nor children "for" their parents Deut. The Mishnah lists as disqualified relatives: father, brother, uncle, brother-in-law, stepfather, father-in-law, and their sons and sons-in-law Sanh.

Where the relationship is to a woman, the disqualification extends to her husband Yad, Edut ; Sh. The fact that a disqualified kinsman does not maintain any connection with the party concerned is irrelevant Yad, Edut ; Sh. Witnesses who are related to one another are incompetent to attest or testify together Mak. As relatives are incompetent to testify for or against the party to whom they are related, a fortiori the party himself is incompetent to testify for or against himself, for "a man is related to himself" San.

But while the incompetency of the relatives results only in their testimony being inadmissible as evidence, there can be no "testimony" of a party at all Piskei ha-Rosh Mak. Ramban Mak. Ran Sanh. Ribash nos. A witness is disqualified where any benefit may accrue to him from his testimony BB 43a; Yad, Edut , as where he has some stake in the outcome of the proceedings Sh. However, the benefit must be present and immediate and not speculative only Sh.

The question whether some such direct or indirect benefit may accrue to a witness is often puzzling: "these things depend on the discretion of the judge and the depth of his understanding as to what is the gist of the case at issue" Yad, Edut ; Sh. It is a "well-established custom" that where local usages or regulations are in issue townspeople are competent witnesses, even though they may, as local residents, have some interest in the matter Rosh, Resp.

The same "custom" would appear to apply to attesting witnesses who were appointed as such by authority cf.

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No witness may say that he is or was wicked so as to disqualify himself from attesting or testifying Sanh. A party who wishes to disqualify witnesses of the other party has to prove their incompetency by the evidence of at least two other competent witnesses Sanh. Disqualification as a witness is not regarded as a penalty, and hence no previous warning is required; but in cases of improper or contemptible conduct and minor transgressions, it has been suggested that a person should not be disqualified as a witness unless previously warned that this would happen if he persisted in his conduct Yad, loc.

Where a witness attested an act or a document, he cannot testify that he was incompetent to do so Ket. It might be otherwise if his signature could be identified only by his own testimony: if he could be heard to deny his signature, he ought also to be heard to say that his signature was worthless Ket. Where a witness has given evidence, and it subsequently transpires that he was incompetent, his evidence will be regarded as wrongly admitted and the case be reopened only if the incompetence was derived from Scripture or had been announced by public proclamation Sanh.

A person called to attest or testify together with another person whom he knows to be incompetent as a witness must decline to attest or testify, even though the incompetence of the other is not yet known or proven to the court Yad, Edut ; Sh. The rationale of this rule appears to be that since the incompetence of any one witness invalidates the evidence of the whole group of witnesses to which he belongs Mak.

In civil cases, parties may stipulate that, notwithstanding any incompetence, the evidence of witnesses named shall be accepted and acted upon by the court Sanh. Disqualification no longer holds: in the case of criminals, after their punishment is completed Yad, Edut ; Sh. As a financial interest in the testimony disqualifies the witness, the stipulation or acceptance of remuneration for testifying invalidates the evidence Bek.


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The rule prohibiting remuneration is confined to testifying witnesses only; attesting witnesses may always be remunerated ibid. A man suspected of accepting money for giving evidence is not a credible witness and should never be believed Tosef. Any person able to testify as one who has seen or learned of the matter who does not come forward to testify is liable to punishment Lev. While in criminal cases the witness is under obligation to come forward and testify of his own accord, in civil cases the duty to testify arises only when the man is summoned to do so Yad, Edut ; Sh.

Kings are exempt from the duty to testify Sanh. Persons who were 'planted' and hidden on the premises to overlook a certain act or overhear certain words are not admitted as witnesses Yad, Edut , except in the case of prosecution against inciters to idolatry Sanh. A witness whose memory is defective may be allowed to refresh it by looking at what he had written at the time, or even by listening to the evidence of other witnesses Ket.

Yet the fact that the witness recognizes some contemporary handwriting as his own does not render the writing admissible in evidence if he does not remember the facts to which that writing relates Sh. Yad, Edut There is no presumption that the passage of time adversely affects any witness' memory Sh. The biblical injunction, "thou shalt then inquire and make search and ask diligently" Deut. Originally, the rule was held to apply in all cases, both civil and criminal Sanh.

It is the duty of the court, Maimonides says: "to interrogate the witnesses and examine them and question them extensively and probe into their accuracy and refer them back to previous questions so as to make them desist from or change their testimony if it was in any way faulty; but the court must be very careful lest, by such examination, 'the witness might learn to lie'" Yad, Edut based on Sanh.

The purpose of the examination is, of course, to find out if the witnesses are truthful and consistent; even though all potentially untruthful witnesses have already been sifted and excluded by disqualification, further precautionary rules were deemed necessary to make sure of the witness' veracity. Every examination starts with questions of this kind, which are indispensable Nov. The particular legal importance of this part of the examination is due to its function as sole cause for allegations of perjury Yad, Edut Derishah is the examination relating to the substance of the facts at issue: who did it?

Or, in civil cases, how do you know the defendant is liable to the plaintiff? Bedikah is a sort of cross-examination relating to accompanying and surrounding circumstances and not directly touching upon the facts in issue Yad, Edut The more a judge conducts examinations of this kind the better Sanh.

On the other hand, questioning of this kind is dispensable, and judgment may be given on the testimony of witnesses who have not been so cross-examined Nov. The conduct and amount of cross-examinations is at the discretion of the judges; they ought to insist on it whenever there is the least suspicion of an attempt to mislead or deceive the court din merummeh ; Shev.

Such suspicion may arise, for instance, where several witnesses testify in exactly the same words — which would not normally happen unless they had learned their testimony by heart TJ , Sanh. In these cases, cross-examination should concentrate on points on which suspicion arose and not be allowed to spread boundlessly Nov. Ran, Sanh. If, notwithstanding all cross-examination, the witnesses are consistent in their evidence but the judge is not satisfied that they are telling the truth, he should disqualify himself and let another judge take his place Shev.

Where two sets of witnesses contradict each other on a matter material to the issue, i. The reason is that there is no knowing which of the two groups of witnesses is testifying to the truth and which is lying Yad, Edut , ; Sh. Where, however, there are inconsistencies or contradictions within the evidence of one set of witnesses and none within the other, the evidence of the consistent group will have to be accepted — the other being dismissed as untruthful because inconsistent.

After a fact has been established judicially on the strength of the testimony of two or more consistent witnesses, the findings of fact will not necessarily be affected by contradictory witnesses coming forward after judgment TJ , Yev. Contradictions on matters not material to the issue will not normally affect the admissibility of the testimony Sanh. Ran ad loc. It seems that in civil cases, contradictions must always relate to matters material to the issue in order to warrant their rejection as insufficient Sanh. Where one witness positively testifies to a fact material to the issue, and the other testifies that the fact is unknown to him, the testimony of the former is deemed to be contradicted; where the fact testified to is not material to the issue, the ignorance of the second witness does not amount to contradiction Yad, Edut As there is no knowing whether the contradicting or contradicted evidence is true, neither will be regarded as perjury.

While evidence of perjury must be given in the presence of the perjured witnesses, evidence contradicting previously given testimony may be given in the absence of the former witnesses Ket. Where the evidence of witnesses to the effect that a man is "wicked" and hence incompetent to testify is contradicted by other evidence, even though the first evidence is insufficient in law to disqualify him, the man will not be admitted as a witness because of the doubts arising on his credibility Yad, Edut ; but there is a strong dissent holding that every man is to be presumed competent until proven otherwise by valid and conclusive evidence Tos.

In contrast to Western legal systems, in which the litigant has the right to testify, Jewish law distinguishes between litigants and witnesses, and the laws governing the plaintiff and the defendant are distinct from the laws of testimony. In modern times, jurists have proposed anchoring the principle that "A litigant cannot be a witness" in the Israeli laws of evidence Draft Bill for Amendment to Testimony in Civil Cases, by Dr. Ginnosar and Dr. Certain scholars have attempted to characterize testimony as a special means of proving matters and deciding a case.

The institution of testimony the set of witnesses is a quasi-judicial one for the determination of facts, similar to the jury in Anglo-American law. Qualification for testimony is determined by competency requirements that are fundamentally similar to those for membership in the judiciary Hefetz, Mikkumah shel Edut ; Ettinger, The Role of Witnesses. A person's classification as a witness and his belonging to a set of witnesses turns on the question of whether the witnesses' function is to witness a particular act or to testify in court this distinction is largely similar to that between constitutive witnesses, eidei kiyyum , and testifying witnesses, eidei ra'ayah.

Witnesses appearing in court officially receive that status at the stage at which the court administers the admonishment Mishnah, Sanh. However, the criterion differs regarding witnesses who observe an event for the purposes of attesting to it. According to this understanding, in all cases in which the witnesses are called upon to attest to an event, or to sign a document, when a question of their legal competency arises the purpose of their coming must be ascertained.

If a relative or legally incompetent person states that he came to testify, the contract is disqualified. The first stage in defining the summoned witnesses as a set of witnesses begins from the moment they intended to attest to the event, and not just to observe it. A central rule regarding the validity of signed documents as admissible evidence is the dictum of Resh Lakish, that "signatures of witnesses to a document are as reliable as if their evidence had been investigated in the bet din. In most forms of testimony one cannot waive the requirement that witnesses be interrogated by the court, whereas documents can be accepted as evidence without the court conducting any enquiry pertaining to the witnesses who signed it.

On the other hand, one of the scholars Sinai, The Geonic and Maimonidean Approach to Testimony Recorded in Legal Documents demonstrated that certain 12 th -century rishonim e. According to this conception, the biblical conditions for the admissibility of testimony do not distinguish between attesting to a document and other forms of testimony. Under biblical law all forms of testimony must be given by witnesses in court, thus enabling their examination and interrogation by the court, in accordance with the talmudic rule. Nevertheless, even according to the latter view, written testimony is valid even under biblical law in cases of ritual matters issur and especially regarding a get , because these as distinct from capital and monetary cases, do not need to be clarified by the court Maim.

Sinai's interpretation, ibid. This is likewise the conception evinced by Maimonides' comments on examination and interrogation of the testimony that frees a woman from the bonds of aginut , regarding which he writes that the Sages allowed a woman to remarry on the basis of testimony that the husband had died, "even on the basis of a written document, and without examination and interrogation. But in matters that can be ascertained through means other than the testimony of the particular witness, where he cannot clear himself if he is exposed as a false witness, as when he has testified that so-and-so is dead, the Torah does not so insist, because in such cases it is uncommon for a witness to testify to a falsehood" Yad, Gerushin In explaining this ruling, one of the scholars focused on the basic distinction between matters requiring a court ruling, such as capital and civil cases, regarding which the stringent rules of testimony are applied, and ritual matters, including the release of an agunah , in which the matters permitted or prohibited are applicable by themselves, irrespective of the court ruling Sinai, Investigation of Agunah Witnesses , — One of the scholars showed that the rule "by two witnesses shall a matter be established" should not be regarded as an all-inclusive and rigid rule and that, in fact, the courts rely as a matter of course on less than two witnesses, as well as on circumstantial evidence H.

Hefetz, "According to Two Witnesses? Biali , 5 PD 72, 73, 78— In any case of hearing testimony, courts operating on the basis of Jewish law are required to determine the competency of the witnesses, and in many cases are unable to accept the testimony of incompetent witnesses. Nonetheless, one of the foremost rabbinical judges, who subsequently served as chief rabbi of Israel, stressed that. It goes without saying that the bet din is authorized to hear the truth from any person, in any form, to form an impression.

Even where the witnesses are incompetent under halakhic principles, their testimony may aid them in drawing conclusions based on common sense presumptions umdana or as proof of an objective reality. In many cases, the court is empowered to use its discretion to rule in reliance on other forms of proof and common sense conclusions, even in the absence of valid testimony. Rav A. The difference between testimony proffered by competent witnesses as opposed to that of incompetent witnesses has been explained by one scholar Ettinger, The Role of Witnesses as being based on a fundamental distinction between testimony and credibility.

This distinction is manifested in the willingness to accept testimony of incompetent witnesses such as testimony for an agunah, that her husband died , even though they are not considered as "witnesses" in the formal sense, though their testimony is relied upon. According to Torrey, the story is that "The Fourth Gospel was brought to Ephesus by a Christian fugitive from Palestine soon after the middle of the first century. It was written in Aramaic. Subsequently, this John was banished by Nero and died on Patmos after writing Revelation.

Torrey argued that until AD 80, when Christians were expelled from the synagogues, [82] the Christian message was always first heard in the synagogue and, for cultural reasons, the evangelist would have spoken in Aramaic, else "he would have had no hearing. Christina Rossetti was a Victorian poet who believed the sensual excitement of the natural world found its meaningful purpose in death and in God. In her view, what Revelation has to teach is patience. The relevance of John's visions [89] belongs to Christians of all times as a continuous present meditation.

Such matters are eternal and outside of normal human reckoning. Winter that returns not to spring Recently, aesthetic and literary modes of interpretation have developed, which focus on Revelation as a work of art and imagination, viewing the imagery as symbolic depictions of timeless truths and the victory of good over evil. John's book is a vision of a just world, not a vengeful threat of world-destruction. Her view that Revelation's message is not gender-based has caused dissent.

She says we are to look behind the symbols rather than make a fetish out of them. In contrast, Tina Pippin states that John writes " horror literature " and "the misogyny which underlies the narrative is extreme. Lawrence took an opposing, pessimistic view of Revelation in the final book he wrote, Apocalypse. Instead, he wanted to champion a public-spirited individualism which he identified with the historical Jesus supplemented by an ill-defined cosmic consciousness against its two natural enemies.

One of these he called "the sovereignty of the intellect" [96] which he saw in a technology-based totalitarian society. The other enemy he styled "vulgarity" [97] and that was what he found in Revelation. And nowhere does this happen so splendiferously than in Revelation. His specific aesthetic objections to Revelation were that its imagery was unnatural and that phrases like "the wrath of the Lamb" were "ridiculous. In the first, there was a scheme of cosmic renewal in "great Chaldean sky-spaces", which he quite liked.

After that, Lawrence thought, the book became preoccupied with the birth of the baby messiah and "flamboyant hate and simple lust Modern biblical scholarship attempts to understand Revelation in its 1st-century historical context within the genre of Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literature. Under this interpretation, assertions that "the time is near" are to be taken literally by those communities.

Consequently, the work is viewed as a warning to not conform to contemporary Greco-Roman society which John "unveils" as beastly, demonic, and subject to divine judgment. Although the acceptance of Revelation into the canon has from the beginning been controversial, it has been essentially similar to the career of other texts.

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Scholar Barbara Whitlock pointed out a similarity between the consistent destruction of thirds depicted in the Book of Revelation a third of mankind by plagues of fire, smoke, and brimstone, a third of the trees and green grass, a third of the sea creatures and a third of the ships at sea, etc.

Whitlock wrote: "Zoroastrianism, the state religion of the Roman Empire's main rival, was part of the intellectual millieu in which Christianity came into being, just as were Judaism, the Greek-Roman religion, and the worship of Isis and Mithras. A Zoroastrian influence is completely plausible". Much of Revelation employs ancient sources, primarily but not exclusively from the Old Testament. For example, Howard-Brook and Gwyther [] regard the Book of Enoch 1 Enoch as an equally significant but contextually different source. There is an angel ascending in both accounts 1 En ; Rev —19 and both accounts have three messages 1 En —9; Rev — Academics showed little interest in this topic until recently.

For example, an anonymous Scottish commentary of [] prefaces Revelation 4 with the Little Apocalypse of Mark 13, places Malachi "Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord" within Revelation 11 and writes Revelation side-by-side with the role of "the Satan" in the Book of Job.

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The message is that everything in Revelation will happen in its previously appointed time. Steve Moyise uses the index of the United Bible Societies' Greek New Testament to show that "Revelation contains more Old Testament allusions than any other New Testament book, but it does not record a single quotation.

Book of Revelation

Revelation concentrates on Isaiah, Psalms, and Ezekiel, while neglecting, comparatively speaking, the books of the Pentateuch that are the dominant sources for other New Testament writers. Methodological objections have been made to this course as each allusion may not have an equal significance. To counter this, G. Beale sought to develop a system that distinguished 'clear', 'probable', and 'possible' allusions.

A clear allusion is one with almost the same wording as its source, the same general meaning, and which could not reasonably have been drawn from elsewhere. A probable allusion contains an idea which is uniquely traceable to its source. Possible allusions are described as mere echoes of their putative sources. Yet, with Revelation, the problems might be judged more fundamental.

The author seems to be using his sources in a completely different way to the originals. For example, he borrows the 'new temple' imagery of Ezekiel 40—48 but uses it to describe a New Jerusalem which, quite pointedly, no longer needs a temple because it is God's dwelling. Ian Boxall [] writes that Revelation "is no montage of biblical quotations that is not John's way but a wealth of allusions and evocations rewoven into something new and creative.

He sets out a comparative table listing the chapters of Revelation in sequence and linking most of them to the structurally corresponding chapter in Ezekiel.

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The interesting point is that the order is not the same. John, on this theory, rearranges Ezekiel to suit his own purposes. Some commentators argue that it is these purposes — and not the structure — that really matter. Beale believes that, however much John makes use of Ezekiel, his ultimate purpose is to present Revelation as a fulfillment of Daniel 7. For example, Ezekiel's encounter with God is in reverse order as John's encounter with God Ezek —28; Rev —7; note both accounts have beings with faces of a lion, ox or calf, man, and eagle Ezek ; Rev , both accounts have an expanse before the throne Ezek ; Rev The chariot's horses in Zechariah's are the same colors as the four horses in Revelation Zech —8; Rev —8.

The nesting of the seven marches around Jericho by Joshua is reenacted by Jesus nesting the seven trumpets within the seventh seal Josh —10; Rev —17; —; — The description of the beast in Revelation is taken directly out of Daniel see Dan —8; Rev —7. The method that John used allowed him to use the Hebrew Scriptures as the source and also use basic techniques of parallel formation, thereby alluding to the Hebrew Scriptures. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 24 June This article is about the book in the New Testament.

For other uses, see Book of Revelation disambiguation. Matthew Mark Luke John. Apostle Beloved disciple Evangelist Patmos Presbyter. Apocryphon Acts Signs Gospel. Main article: Authorship of the Johannine works. Further information: Development of the New Testament canon. After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings [Homologoumena].

Among the rejected [Kirsopp. Lake translation: "not genuine"] writings must be reckoned, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. Main article: Events of Revelation. See also: Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Contrasting beliefs. The Millennium. Biblical texts. Key terms. Main article: Historicist interpretations of the Book of Revelation. Christianity portal. An Introduction to the New Testament 2nd ed.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. In Esler, Philip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge Worlds. Routledge published Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 15 October Catechetical Lecture 4 Chapter Retrieved 12 October Church Fathers: Letter 39 Athanasius. Retrieved 14 October Commentary on the Apostles' Creed Synod of Laodicea Canon Greek xxvii. The Apostolic Canons. Canon Word Biblical Commentary 52A: Revelation 1—5. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 14 April Karris ed.

New York: Doubleday, Archived from the original on 5 October The practice of writing under a famous person's name or, at least, attributing what one had written to someone better known, was well established at the time the gospels were written and it is probable that the authors chose the names of people who were already well respected in the Christian community to gain a wider acceptance of the material.

Because the gospels come before the Book of Acts and the Letters of Paul in the New Testament many people seem to believe that these works were written first and the events they relate happened earlier than the later books; actually, the reverse is true. The letters of Paul came first and the gospels were written later. Between CE the apostle Paul traveled throughout the Mediterranean on his evangelical missions preaching the new religion of the risen Christ. The Bible itself in the Book of Acts and I Peter allude to the possibility, explored in depth in the late 19th and early 20th century, that Paul's version of Christianity was different from the message preached by Jesus of Nazareth.

Paul formerly Saul of Tarsus was a Jewish pharisee of Tarsus in modern day Syria who claimed to have received a vision from God which convinced him of the reality of Jesus Christ as the risen son of the creator of the universe sent to earth to die for the sins of man. While many people have since considered this a miraculous occurrence which displays God's love for humanity through the sacrifice of his son, the concept of the dying and reviving god figure was well known in Paul's time and it is probable that beliefs such as the Cult of Isis informed the basis of Paul's religious views.

The understanding of the Bible between the time of Constantine 's elevation of Christianity to the religion of Rome 4th century CE and the next few hundred years was relatively unchanged but, in the 19th century CE, biblical interpretation underwent a radical reformation. The stories which the Bible relates were considered to be historically accurate and entirely unique until the mid 19th century CE when archaeologists discovered the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. The Bible, in fact, was considered the oldest book in the world until much older literature was discovered which told the same stories, in an earlier form, than those found in the Bible.

Scholars had long known that the Bible was a compilation which had been gathered from earlier works and authorized under the Bishops of Rome but no one seemed to be aware that those works were drawn from even earlier pieces. No one could read Egyptian hieroglyphics until Jean Jacques Champollion CE deciphered them and the literature of Sumer was completely unknown to the modern world.

In the midth century CE museums and publications sent archaeologists from the west to the region of Mesopotamia to find physical evidence which would substantiate biblical narratives. The 19th century CE was an interesting period for religion in the west, especially Christianity, in that people became more vocal in their criticism of the faith and new ideas and philosophies provided for acceptable alternatives to religious belief. The Bible claimed that God had made man "a little lower than the angels" Psalm while Darwin was claiming humans evolved from lower species.

Partly in response to such claims, museums and predominantly Christian societies in the west sent these teams of archaeologists to Mesopotamia to find hard evidence of the truth of the Bible. What they found instead was the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia and the rich literary heritage which had been buried under the sands for centuries. Iconic stories such as the Fall of Man and the Great Flood, they found, were not unique to the Bible at all but had already been written down centuries before the Hebrew scribes revised them in their own work.

The great law code of Moses, thought to be the first in history, was discovered to have had a predecessor in the Law Code of Ur-Nammu and the more famous Code of Hammurabi. Excavations in Egypt, meanwhile, found no evidence for the story of the enslavement of the Hebrews under the pharaoh of Egypt nor any for the other details found in the Book of Exodus.

Once ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics were able to be read, the myths of Egypt were found to have similarities to the Christian figure of the dying and reviving god and Mary, the mother of Jesus, to have taken on many of the attributes and epithets of the Egyptian goddess Isis. As stories of these discoveries became more widely known, belief in the Bible as the word of God began to change to an understanding of the work as inspired by God or as scripture written by inspired men.

Although many people throughout the world today continue to believe in the Bible as the authoritative word of God, this belief is not as widespread as it was prior to the 19th century CE.

The Book of Job

The interpretation of the Bible in the present day is largely a matter of individual understanding without the societal expectation which informed western society prior to the work of scholars, archaeologists, and historians in the 19th century CE. These individuals changed the world by radically revising people's understanding of history and the Bible and opening up avenues of inquiry which greatly broadened human knowledge.

The revised understanding of the Bible and its place in history upset many people at the time and continues to in the modern day but, to many others, the beauty of the Bible's language and the grand vision of redemption it presents is undiminished by the revisionist revelations of the 19th century CE.

The Bible continues to inspire and encourage people around the world, translated into every language, and remains the best-selling book of all time. Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Become a Member.