Machiavelli: Philosoph der Macht (German Edition)

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  1. Freiheit und Zugehörigkeit: Europäischer Kanon, kulturelle Identität und postmoderne Krise
  2. Herfried Münkler
  3. Marcu, Valeriu [WorldCat Identities]

Precisely this, however, was what he regarded as necessary for countering the hegemony of the homme machine or, more broadly, the hegemony of scientific modes of thinking in the modern world. If this first argument was a moral one, the second one had a political edge. This means that, if needed, they can be changed by similar human efforts. Carl Hinrichs Munich: R. Oldenbourg, , 5. In , Ankersmit's last PhD student, Reinbert Krol, devoted his doctoral dissertation to Meinecke's understanding of historicism.

Precisely this was what Ankersmit, in a lecture for the Netherlands Historical Society in Utrecht, presented as a crucial insight for his own Narrative Logic. He even framed his dissertation project as an attempt at retrieving historicism in Meinecke's sense. Of course, when Ankersmit embraced a Meineckean Ideenlehre , he did so with one major difference. Instead of assigning historians the task of identifying characteristic ideas in historical reality, he believed that historians have to construe those ideas.

This antirealist turn had major implications for what historicism could be understood to mean. In the Dutch context, this could be read as a response to M. Why then did Ankersmit, despite these significant differences between Meinecke's Historismus and his own philosophy of history, choose to inscribe himself in a historicist tradition? Three reasons can be singled out. For instance, in the Dutch context, Hermann von der Dunk at Utrecht University also heavily drew on historicist resources.

Because Ankersmit basically shared this strategy, he sought to make historicism as philosophically up to date as possible. Second, as Marek Tamm has recently pointed out, the undisputed hero of Narrative Logic was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose monads resembled Ankersmit's narrative substances in offering irreducible interpretive perspectives on the world. Mohr, , Most important, however, was that Ankersmit had been trained in an academic milieu imbued with historicist sensitivities.

His most influential teacher had been Ernst Heinrich Kossmann, an aristocratically minded historian with German family roots who had taught at University College London before moving to Groningen in Kossmann, Geschiedenis is als een olifant: een keuze uit het werk van E. Kossmann, ed. Pairing classic erudition to dignified irony in teaching and writing, Kossmann embodied a professorial persona that Ankersmit, himself from patrician descent, greatly admired.

He had an unusually strong and fascinating personality—I never met anyone even remotely coming close to what he was like. If he had decided for a political career, the recent history of my country would have [been] completely different from what it is now. Notably, it was Kossmann who introduced Ankersmit to the historicist tradition and, as we shall see in a moment, stimulated his pupil in other crucial respects, too. Huussen, Jr. Kossmann, and H. For Ankersmit, Kossmann would continue to embody the historical profession at its best. However, before turning to these later elements, we would like to comment briefly on the conventional view that Narrative Logic was indebted, or even a response, to White's Metahistory.

Ankersmit's earliest reference to Metahistory dates from and emerged in the context of an essay exploring the morphological similarities between historical novels and works of historical scholarship. Ankersmit's line of reasoning in this essay is strongly reminiscent of Metahistory : historians and novelists both write stories, all stories are necessarily selective, and those selections are governed by criteria that are primarily stylistic ones.

More critical commentary followed in , when Ankersmit tried to understand how tropological categories could possibly structure historical discourse, as White maintained. His line of reasoning is often very incoherent and continuously he blurts out crass statements without even trying to justify them. Consequently, next to some brilliant insights, White's book contains much nonsense. What fascinated Ankersmit in Metahistory was the suggestion that metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony can serve as forms of intuition or categories of understanding in the Kantian sense.

But was this White's idea or an implication drawn from Ankersmit's own assumption that historical theorists are philosophers trying to answer epistemological questions? And assuming they were, why were there only four of them? Clearly this criticism reveals the high expectations that Ankersmit had held of White, just as his later disappointment in Richard Rorty would demonstrate how eagerly Ankersmit had wished the author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature to discover the importance of aesthetic experience in the wake of his deconstruction of language as an epistemological foundation.

As Michael S. This frustration was one reason why White ended up playing a marginal role in Narrative Logic compared to, for example, Leibniz, G. Another, more important reason was that Ankersmit's aim to develop a neohistoricist philosophy of history in an analytical idiom was too different from White's to benefit from Metahistory : the book just was not philosophical enough. Consequently, it was Munz, together with Haskell Fain, the author of Between Philosophy and History , who was Ankersmit's main American conversation partner in the years when Narrative Logic took shape.

The impact of Metahistory on Narrative Logic should therefore not be overestimated. In the light of Ankersmit's Groningen context as well as his early publications, it makes more sense to read his first book as an attempt at retrieving a German historicist tradition. This is not to say, of course, that White could not have provided inspiration for this project. Kuisma Korhonen Amsterdam: Rodopi, , 35— Ankersmit, American Historical Review 89, no. But this is counterfactual history. See also the subsequent exchange: F. Could Ankersmit's neohistoricism help explain this counterintuitive move?

That is to say that, for Ankersmit, a desire to grasp as concretely as possible how life in the past had felt was going to replace the historian's traditional task of showing patterns across time and space. And if that was the case, Narrative Logic had to be supplemented, if not with an Experiential Logic , then at least with a philosophical account of whether and how the past can be experienced in its vivid concreteness. Arguably, however, this is not the whole story: other factors also contributed to Ankersmit's interest in historical experience. Sublime Historical Experience abounds with autobiographical stories about the boredom Ankersmit experienced as a child , his love of rococo decoration , and the transference of personal feelings of loss to the trauma of the French Revolution For an excellent discussion, see W.

Krul Groningen: Historische Uitgeverij, , esp. Kossmann, Familiearchief: notities over voorouders, tijdgenoten en mijzelf Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, , — Krul, Historicus tegen de tijd: opstellen over leven en werk van J. Huizinga, Briefwisseling, ed. Krul, and Anton van der Lem, 3 vols. Utrecht: Veen, — The enchantment emanating from such relics elicits a desire for knowledge, which in turn is the best possible stimulus for historical inquiry.

The notions of aesthetic representation developed in these seminal studies made such a deep impression on Ankersmit that he drew on them in virtually all of his work of the late s and early s. In this line of reasoning, resemblance between art and reality is not what matters, but a difference that enables one to look with fresh eyes at the world, or even to see the world at all.

And precisely that is what Huizinga seemed to hint at with his historical sensation. Huizinga, Het aesthetische bestanddeel van geschiedkundige voorstellingen Haarlem: H. Tjeenk Willink, The color of the interior hovers between golden yellow and wine red. The furnishing reminds one of a salon in Enlightenment Paris, where Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau met each other. Their absence is compensated by an immense number of books.

Politicians, historians, theologians, sages, thinkers, and thinkers over thinkers from the past ten centuries have gathered here in great numbers. At night, they enter into debate with each other; at daytime with their owner. This book is therefore not to be interpreted as a recantation of what I have said about such other topics in my previous writings. Consequently, Ankersmit's sublime historical experience did not have as distinctly a neohistoricist profile as narrative substances or historical representations.

Ankersmit, De historische ervaring Groningen: Historische Uitgeverij, , See F. So he was deeply disappointed by my choice for philosophy of history. Yet, as early as , Ankersmit had been teaching a course on political theory. It would take until , though, before Ankersmit wrote his first paper on political representation, on the not altogether surprising occasion of a conference marking Kossmann's retirement.

Drawing, once again, on Gombrich, Goodman, and Danto, Ankersmit argued that there is an analogy between political representation and historical representation that can best be understood in aesthetic terms—that is, in terms of Gombrich's and Danto's substitution theory of art. Political representation, too, requires differences instead of similarity between represented and representation. Just as historical representations cannot be reduced to historical statements, so political judgment, in Ankersmit's analysis, is more than the sum of electoral preferences.

In Gombrich's and Rorty's technical language, such shared horizons serve as tertia comparationis , or as orders shared by represented and representatives alike. This made aesthetic representation in politicis a rather revolutionary idea. Within the period of their mandate, politicians are as free in exercising these powers as historians are in developing new colligatory concepts.

Ankersmit, De spiegel van het verleden Kampen: Kok Agora, , — Characteristically, Ankersmit seldom felt a need to elaborate on the limits of this freedom. Or more abstractly: Where tertia comparationis reign supreme, aesthetic reorientation is needed. For Ankersmit, liberation must indeed come from aesthetics, given that only aesthetics is able to resist the temptation of invoking timeless truths or universal schemes a temptation to which Ankersmit, drawing on his old antipathy, believed social scientists especially susceptible.

Aesthetics is the art of finding unique solutions to unique problems. Le Prince ne doit craindre de se perjurer, tromper et dissimuler: car le trompeur trouve tousiours qui se laisse tromper. Le Prince doit savoir cavalier les esprits des hommes pour les tromper. Le Prince qui comme par contrainte usera de douceur et gracieusete, avancera sa mine. Le Prince prudent ne doit observer la foy, quand 13 Fobservation luy en est dommageable, et que les occasions iui la luy ont fait promettre sont passees. Le Prince doit avoir 1'esprit dextrement habitue a estre cruel, inhumain et desloyal, pour se savoir monstrer tel, quand il est besoin.

Le Prince voulant rompre la paix promise et juree avec son voisin, doit mouvoir guerre et s'attacher contre l'amy d'iceluy.

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Le Prince doit avoir le courage dispose a tourner selon les vents et variation de fortune, et se savoir servir du vice au besoin. Chichete est louable en un Prince, et la reputation de mechanique est un deshonneur sans malvueillance. Le Prince qui voudroit fair estroitte profession d'homme de bien, ne pourroit estre de longue duree en ce monde, en la compagnie de tant d'autres qui ne valent rien. Les hommes ne savent estre du tout bons ou du tout meschans, ny user de cruaute et violence parfaite. Celuy qui a tousiours porte visage d'homme de bien, et veut devenir meschant pour parvenir a quelque degre, doit coulourer son changement de quelque raison apparente.

Le Prince en temps de paix entretenant partialite entre ses sujets, pourra par ce moyen les manier plus aisement a sa volonte. Seditions et dissentions civiles sont utiles, et ne sont a blasmer. Le moyen de tenir les sujets en paix et union, et les garder de se remuer, c'est de les tenir pauvres.

Freiheit und Zugehörigkeit: Europäischer Kanon, kulturelle Identität und postmoderne Krise

Le Prince qui craint ses sujets, doit bastir forteresses en son pays, pour les tenir en obeissance. Le Prince doit deleguer a autruy les afaires dont 14 1'execution est sujette a inimitie et se reserver ceux qui despendent de sa grace. Pour ministrer bonne justice, le Prince doit establir grand nombre de juges. Les gentls-hommes qui tienent chasteaux et jurisdictions sont fort ennemis des Kepubliques. La noblesse de France ruineroit Festat du Royaume, si les Parlamens ne la punissoyent et tennoyent en crainte.

Such of these maxims as the dramatists used, will be compared with Machiavelli's own words later on: how viciously, and unjustly they were singled out, must be apparent to all students. An English translation, which will be discussed in its place, was immediately made. Having reached the source of Elizabethan Machiavellianism, it would be irrelevant, however interesting, to follow the general criticism of the Florentine farther.

Italy was over two hundred years ahead of any other modern nation in the renaissance; in the beginning of the 14 th century she had produced Dante, Petrarca, and Boccaccio : less than two centuries later Machiavelli, Ariosto, and Tasso. English poetry fashioned itself after the Italian, just as the English gentleman adopted the fashions of the Italian ; but only until the novelty wore off.

Three centuries ahead of us in mental training-, with Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Ariosto and Tasso already on their list of classics; boasting a multifarious literature of novels, essays, comedies, pastorals, tragedies and lyrics ; with their great histories of Guicciardini and Machiavelli ; with their political philosophy and metaphysical speculations; the Italians as it was inevitable - swayed English taste, and moved the poets of England to imitation.

Surrey and Wyatt introduced the sonnet and blank verse from Italy into England. Spenser wrote the "Faery Queen" under the influence of the Italian romantic epics. Raleigh could confer no higher praise on this great poem than to say that Petrarch's ghost, no less than Homer's, was moved thereby, to weeping for his laurels. Sidney copied the Italians in his lyrics , and followed Sannazzaro in the Arcadia.

The Englysh Damoselles They in England pray when you play, so we when you sleep, fast when you feast, and weepe for their sins, when you laugh in your sensualitie. Arber However undesired this justly seemed to some, the tide continued to flow towards Italy: 1 certainly, to the great benefit of English literature, if not of morals. He was the first to mention Machiavelli, 2 of whom he can Jhavp. He that by living-, and traveling- in Italic, bringeth home into England out of Italie the Religion, the learning, the policie, the ex- perience, the manners of Italie.

That is to say, for Religion, Papistrie or worse; for learning, lesse commonly than they carried out with them : for pollicie, a factious hart, a discoursing head, a miude to medle in all men's matters The Italian, that first invented the Italian proverbe against our Englishe men Italianated meant no more their vanitie in living, than their lewd opinion in Religion. For in calling them Deviles, he carieth them cleane away from God: and yet he car- rieth them noe farder, than they willing-lie go themselves, that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open contempte of God and all godliness, both in living and doctrine.

Whitehorne had translated "The Arte of Warre" in , but this relatively unimportant work remained apparently uncommented upon. Vide ante p. Herbert III, And though, for their private matters they can follow, fawne and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie themselves with the worst Papistes, to whom they be wedded, and do well agree togither in three proper opinions : In open contempt of Goddes worde : in a secret securitie of sinne : and in a bloodie desire to have all taken away, by sword and bur- ning, that be not of their faction.

They that do read, with indiiferent judgement, Pygius and Machia- vel, two indifferent Patriarches of thies two Keligions do know full well what I say trewe. This is merely an echo of the fierce diatribes, which religious controversy 3 had long ago called forth upon Machiavelli. Ascham wrote his "Scholem aster" after and be- fore ; it was published in His assumption that Machiavelli was known can apply only to scholars, for into literature he had not yet found entrance. The case of young Gabriel Harvey is typical of this move- ment : at twenty-three years of age in , a student at Cambridge, he had not read the Florentine's works, but was eager to see them, and begged Remington to loan him his copy.

I praie you send me him now bi this schollar, and I wil dispatch him home againe, God willing, ere it be long, as politique I hope as I shal find him. For I purpose to peruse him only, not to misuse him: and superficially to surveie his forrests of pollicie, not guilefully to con- veie awaie his interest in them. Although I feare me it had neede be a high point of pollicie, that should rob Master Machiavel of his pollicie, espe- cially if the surveier be himself an straunger in the Italian territories In good sadnes, M.

Remington if ani dout greatly trubble me concerning the state of ani citti, or the condition of ani person for I understand Machiavel is altogithers in his Italian stories I am purposid to make bowld of you, and to crave your advise in the matter. In this year also, appeared the second edition of Whitehorne's "Arte of Warre". Harvey: Letterbook ed. Scott Camb. The number of references to him is simply legion. Herbert II, But there you do not follow the advice of your friend Machiavelli, unless perhaps it is fear that has extorted those big and sounding words, and you thought that so I might be deterred from my intentions.

Padua 29th April Letters ed. Pears, II, , where is noted "It is remarkable that the translator speaks of himself as never having visited England. Both are exactly alike ; containing all of Gentillet, except the dedi- cation to AlenQon and the verses following.

It is best to let the translator himself explain his object in presenting Gentillet to English readers. When our countrymen's minds were sick, and corrupted with these pestilent diseases, and that discipline waxed stale; then came forth the books of Machiavel, a most pernitious writer, which beganne not in secret and stealing manner as did those former vices but by open meanes, and as it were a continual assault, utterly destroyed not this or that vertue, but even all vertues at once: Insomuch as it took faith from Princes; authoritie and majesty from laws: libertie from the people; and peace and concord from all persons, which are the only remedies for present malladies.

For what shall I speake of Religion whereof the Machiavellians had none, as alreadie plainly appeareth, yet they greatly laboured also to deprive us of the same. Moreover Sathan useth strangers of France, as his fittest instruments, to infect us still with this deadly poison sent out of Italy, who have so highly promoted their Machiavellian bookes, that he is of no reputation in the court of France, which hath not Machiavel's writings at his finger's ends, and that both in the Italian and French tongues, and can apply his precepts to all purposes, as the Oracles of Apollo.

Truly, it is a wonderful thing to consider how faste that evill weede hath growne within these 21 fewe yeares, seeing there is almost none that striveth to excell in vertue or knowledge: as though the only way to obtain honour and riches were by this deceiver's direction She, the most renowned Queen [Elizabeth] hath hitherto preserved the state of her realme, not only safe but flourishing, not by Machiavellian artes, as Guile, Perfidie and other Villainies practising, but by true vertues, as Cle- men cie, Justice, Faith But how happy are yee, both because you have so gratious a Queene, and also for that the infectious Machiavellian doctrine, hath not breathed nor penetrated the intrailes of most happy England.

But that it jnight not so do, I have done my endeavor, to provide an antidote and present remedie, to expell the force of so deadly poyson, if at any time it chance to infect you Kalends Augusti Anno The part in question runs as follows: ' "The Epistle Dedicatorie. A propos of Burleigh, readers of Disraeli will remember he nick-named the great minister "Machiavel" in his "Ame- nities of Literature".

Mcichiavellus ipse loquitur. Quaeris, ego qui sim? Rex Regum: totius orbis [1] Imperium digito nititur omne meo. Nemo regat, qui non Machavellica dogmata callet: Nee sapuisse putes qui minus ista sapit. Caetera sunt umbrae, fumi, ludibria, risus, [5] Regna ego sola loquor.

Plebis amor nihil est; nihilo minus, Indiga Virtus: Verba ego linquo alijs; facta ego mira patro. Emblema est, semperque fuit : luuat ire per alhon : [15] Aut nihil, aut Caesar; noster Alumnus erat. Nil mediocre placet: subliinia sola. Lac pucris cibus est: sanguine vescor ego. Caetera quis nescit? Fraus est niea maxima Virtus: Proxima, Vis : alios non ego nosco Deos.

Ingenij monumenta a mei Regalia volue: [25] Nee post hac quaeres: Quis Machavellus erat! Especially is poison line 13 to be noted; for the Florentine himself nowhere expressly recommends its use. It became, how- ever, the prime factor in Elizabethan Machiavellianism. Lines 18 and 20 read us if they had been written after the appearance of Barabas, Aaron, Eleazar, and Lorenzo, instead of many years before them. But of tantamount importance is the heading: " M achiavellus ipse loquitur. Sacrificaturos Deus ipse affatur amicos: Dij. Non miranda Dea est, cui coeli Essentia quinta, Quattuor atque parent terrae elementa Deae?

Hinc ego divinis cumulatus honoribus, inter Reges, atque Deos, Rex color, atque Deus. Hinc manibus supera, ima fero ; septemque Planaetas, Bis septem Reges, Pontificesque meis. Dyce Juppiter arrisit; Maia iudiguata parumper Mox ait: ergo etiam films iste meus. One line of the last passage is worthy of note: "Vulpe, Leone, Apro, trux Machavelle, tuo. Rideo ego; plorare tibi licet, atque licebit, Quod procul est Princeps, 6 Machavelle, tuus.

Nostra aliam ad formara Princeps fabricata, sereno, Non Tragico populos aspicit ore, suos. Terribilis tua pompa nimis, non Barbara nobis, Turcica non rabies, non laniena placet. Perchance he spoke not; but, Like a full-acorn'd boar, a German one, Cry'd, oli! Scott p. Now Greene was a student at Cambridge in this year, and Marlowe in the next: although the words quoted are, no doubt, exaggerated, and cannot be positively proved to apply to Greene and his associates, yet later testimony points clearly that way; for Harvey accuses both the dra- matists of having used Machiavellian principles in their profligate lives, and Greene confesses it true.

Tully and Demosthenes nothing- so much studied as they were wont:. Machiavel a great man: Castilio, of no small repute: Petrarch and Boccaccio in every man's mouth: Galateo and Guazzo never so happy: overmany acquainted with Unico Aretino. Church: "Spencer" In this year, also, Thomas Lodge intro- duced Machiavelli into the popular controversial literature of the day, with his immediately suppressed pamphlet: "A Reply to Stephen Gosson's Schoole of Abuse" " latet anguis in herba , under your fare show of conscience take heede you cloake not your abuse, it were pittie the learned should be overseene in your simplenesse, I feare me you will be politick wyth Machavel not zealous as a prophet.

Gosse III, To argue on the orthography of a word in Elizabethan literature is very fallible, especially in this case; for Machia- velli's name was spelt in over an hundred different ways: but it is worthy of note that Lodge here, and here alone, adopts Harvey's spelling in the epigrams. He was then a student at Oxford: his work shows no acquaintance at all with Machiavelli's writings : he probably knew of him from Harvey or Gentillet, assumed the same knowledge in his public, cited him, and thus started a "craze", which really became one in the fullest sense of the word, viz.

Lodge referred to Machiavelli as an advocate of dissembling: this is simply Maxim IS. Besides that you know, it hath heen the usual practice of the most exquisite and odd wits Gentillet ante 9. That wordes seeme sweete when bitter is the thought. Take heede therefore, retyre in time from those, To serve their turiies, that teach their tongues to glose, Whose golden shews, although do promise much, In proofe fall out but copper in the touch. Green had been long in Italy, and was well read in the Italian poets, in Guicciardini and Machiavelli, but in his use of the latter he seems to have sacrificed his own know- ledge to that panderism to public taste and feeling, which was so characteristic of the gifted writer.

On the very first page of "Mamillia", praising the superior sturdiness of Padua in not yielding to her enemies as Venice, Florence, Sienna and other cities had done, Greene cited Machiavelli as his authority: "as Machiavell in his Florentine history maketh report" ed. Grosart II, Further along in the second part occurs this sentence: - "So Pharicles although he was whollie wedded unto vanitie, and had professed himselfe a mortall foe to x As Warton said, "Even Machiavelli, who united the liveliest wit with the profoundest reflection Riehe's tale of Mildred and the devil Balthazar is an ingenious adaptation of "Belphegor" in a satire on the craze for new fashions.

As Collier says: "it may be considered the most original part of the volume. Collier Shak. It is perfectly plain, Greene had forgotten his own study of Machiavelli, and was catering to popular senti- ment, The thought is simply Maxim 18, introduced by Lodge and Howell , coupled with Maxim 25 : 2 for Greene lays stress upon the fact that his dissembler was very mutable. The first reference is as follows: "I doubt not, but my Lord of Leycester will take good heed, in joyning by reconciliation with Huntington, after so long a breach: and will not be so improvi- dent, as to make him his soveraigne, who now is but his dependent.

Professor Villari's recent erudite and judicious Life has lifted off the centuries-old obloquy. Match a villain, as will be shown later on. Cassonofsky when Lubomirsky shifts his policy "So, there's Machiavel policy in the abstract; the wind of to'ther party blows a little dust in's teeth, and he wheels about," 4 In attributed to Father Parsons. Works ed. Gray All which Noble men upon occasions that after fell out; were rewarded with death, by the selfe same Princes, whom they had preferred.

And that not without reason as Siegnior Machavel my Lords Coun- cellour affirmeth. For that such Princes, after ward can never give sufficient satisfaction to such friends, for so great a benefit received. And consequently least upon discontentment, they may chance doe as much for others against them, as they have done for them against others : the surest way is, to recom pence them with such reward, as they shall never after bee able to complain of.

And herein you see also the same subtle and Machiavilian sleight, which I mentioned before, of driving men to attempt somewhat, whereby they may incure danger, or remaine in perpetuall suspition or disgrace.

And this practice hee hath long used: and doth daily, against such as he hath will to destroy. Ill: Disc. II, 33 : 1st. IV VII; Disc. Ill, 4 : 1st. Ill, 6. This book 1 of Parsons was wide read: we shall find these three maxims, and the poison principle already in Gentillet , cropping out in the drama. Machiavelli in the Drama. But now that the drama has been J No better example could be given of the difference between this legitimate use of Machiavelli and the vicious popular mis-use than, anticipating about 40 years, by quoting the following stanza from a poem, "Leicesters Ghost", appended to an edition of "Leycester's Common- wealth" in , but written about the end of the reign of James I, who is mentioned as alive: - 1 "Are there not some among you Parasites, 2 Time-servers and observers of no measure, 3 Prince-pleasers, people-pleasers, hypochrites.

I 31 reached the question naturally arises, was there any Machiavellianism in English dramatic literature before this introduction of the Florentine himself by Marlowe. Marlowe confesses in his prologue that he means his Jew of Malta to exhibit that ideal : and from this we may see that Selimus in the Tragical reign of Selimus sometime emperor of the Turks. Aaron in Titus Andronwus, and the other characters in other plays, including perhaps jago in Othello are intended for exhibitions of the hated and dreaded ideal.

Middleton's play The Old Law belongs to this type of political dramas. The former is a firmly established tyrant, the latter are unscrupulous villains, seeking to establish themselves as tyrants, but invariably failing. The character of a tyrant is one of the oldest in all I dramatic literature, ancient and modern. Sidney speaks of ' 32 how the classical drama ,,maket. Tacitus, Seneca, 2 and Aristotle : the principle is time-honored, forming the very Leitmotiv of "Cambyses". The nearest approach to a Machiavellian before Barabas, was Lorenzo in the "Spanish Tragedy"; an arch- villain, 3 who uses Serberine in the murder of Horatio, bribes Pedringano to shoot Serberine, and has the assassin hung before he can expose all.

Lorenzo "Thus must we work, that will avoid distrust, Thus must we practice to prevent mishap : And thus one ill another must expulse. And better 'tis that base companions die, Than by their life to hazard our good haps; Nor shall they live, for me to fear their faith; I'll trust myself, myself shall be my friend; For die they shall, slaves are ordain'd to no other end. His lines: - "Where words prevail not, violence prevails; But gold doth more than either of them both.

Fischer: "Zur Kunstentwickelung cler Eng. SvHt'ca doth express. Lorenzo z. Ill Dods. A method, advocated in Prin. VII, employed by all Elizabethan Machiavellians. Thus, the safe conclusion is that Kyd used the "Principe" in portraying Lorenzo, but did not brand him a "Machiavel" since, as we have seen, the mere name had as yet ? The most colossal figures to be met with in the Elizabethan drama, are Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Faustus, and Barabas: into these Titans he breathed the very soul of his existence, --a wild craving for infinite power.

I, 2 ; 1st. VII Brandl has so consummately stated the general influence of Machiavelli upon Marlowe, that, to add one word, would be impudence. Marlow kannte ihn und liefs ihn im "Jew of Malta" als prolocutor auftreten. Audi die Warnung des sterbenden Greene an Marlow setzt ihn als bekannt voraus: "Is it pestilent Machivilian policy that thou hast studied? Um rait Tamerlans Gegnern zu beginnen : Mycetes, der schwache Perserkonig, nimmt sich w r ie eine Illustration des angestammten Fiirsten aus, der nach Macchiavelli Principe, Kap. Von aufsen to the Faust legend, each was powerfully drawn to Machiavelli in his youth.

Schmidt : "Goethe's Stellung zum Christenthum" Jahrb. In his "Tagebuch" for 30 July occurs this: - "Alles Spinozistische in der poetischen Production wird in der kritischen Reflexion Macchiavellismus" Weim. And in Egmont the secretary to the "Regentin Margarete" is called Machiavel; although this was an historical personage, which Ward I, did not know , Goethe certainly chose this one among the insignificant characters for the significance of the name.

Thronraub, soviel Greuel damit auch verbunden sein mogen, ist nach Macchiavelli nichts unnatiirliehes und pflegt sogar Bewnnderung zu ernten, wenn der Mann sich nur zu lialten vermag. Tadelnswert aber ist, wer darnach gestiirzt wird, und das wird dem passieren, der nicht mit eigener Kraft ausreicht oder gar einen sehr machtigen Fremden hereinruft. Er mufs schone Worte machen, hat im Notfall niclit die rechte Gewalt iiber seine Anhanger und hangt vom Gliicke ab. Principe Cap. Dieser Klasse gehort Cosroe an. Am Hofe des Mycetes ist er als Eedner be- kannt; durch schone Versprechungen erreicht er auch, dafs ihm seine Mitvasallen die Krone des Mycetes iibertragen: "my lord" sagt er zu einem derselben.

Ohne ausreichende Stlitze in sich selbst vertraut er sich den "approved For- tunes" Tamerlans an A. II Sc. Erfolg hat nach Macchiavelli nur, wer die Eigenschaft und Geistesgrofse besitzt, seine Anhanger dauernd zu be- herrschen; der empfangt vom Gliicke blofs die Gelegenheit. Seine Anhanger sind ihm friends and followers". Lerne, ruft Tamerlan, am Schlusse seinem Altesten zu. Ein innerer Konflikt ist nicht versucht; aber man sieht, wie Macchiavelli in der Zeichnung des bisher hohlen und starren Tyrannentypus einen psychologischen Fortschritt anregt, stufenweise Entwickelung anbahnt und allgemeine Rhetorik a la Seneca durch reale Ziige und Gegensatzfiguren durch- bricht.

Barabas gehort einer Klasse von Emporkommlingen an, welche Macchiavelli minder ausmhrlich beschrieben hat, und doch lafst ihn Macchiavelli auf die Buhne geleiten, als einen Trager des gleichen Geistes, desselben gewissenlosen Strebens nach Macht. Das Aveifs Barabas: "nothing violent, oft have I heard tell, can be permanent".

Er hat nicht die von Macchiavelli geforderte Eigenkraft, verzichtet daher auf ein Gewaltunternehmen. Wenn ihn die Natur schliefslich doch dazu treibt, mit ver- zweifelter Schlauheit und Energie die Herrschaft iiber Malta an sich zu reifsen, stiirzt ihn gerade der Verrat eines gekauften Heifers, so wie es Macchiavelli geweissagt hatte. Noch vager wird die Nachwirknng des Macchiavelli im Faust" : Auch Faust kauft die hochste Macht, urn schliefs- lich durch die natiirliche Unzuverlassigkeit solcher Macht- stiitzen alles zu verlieren. Audi bot fiir die Umgestal- tung des Guise mid Mortimer die englische und schottische Geschichte der letzten Jahrzehnte nicht zu unterschatzende Modelle in Both well und Leicester.

Shakspere meant exactly what he said when he made his Richard not the pupil but the school - master of Machiavelli, "I'll Ir was I'roni just such rulers that the Florentjggr drew his doctrines. Und noch entschiedener, wenn auch nach einer anderen Richtung hin, tritt dieser Machiavellismus in seinem ,,Juden von Malta" hervor; hier spricht es Marlowe im Prolog den er Machia- velli in den Mund legt selber aus, dass diese Lebensansicht die Basis sei, auf welcher das Stuck stehe.

Doubtless it had been fed by the publi- cation in English in of the Vindication see Harleian Miscellany, Vol. To be sure, the letter purports to be a translation of an epistle written by Machiavelli April 1 st sic! In short, it was a notable forgery of the year appearing at the end of Nevile's translation 2 of Machia- velli's works, and separately in In fact, it has never been accepted by any authority, nor is it to be found in any Italian edition of Machiavelli's works.

As has been seen, Machiavelli was utterly unknown in England up to about ; but the historian of "English Dramatic Lite- ture" had not observed this fact! Translated into English [by Henry Nevile] London " [again , , ]. Henry Nevile of Nicholas Machiavel's whole works Written by the author April 1st G Works of N.

Wilson's Works Dram, of Rest. The latter play was the most popular J of all of Mar- lowe, and constructed for popular sympathy: Barabas, "a true Machiavel" , was drawn from popular prejudice frased upon Gentillet and not from Marlowe's own study. To some perhaps my name is odious; [5 But such as love me, guard me from their tongues, And let them know that I am Machiavel, And weigh not men, and therefore not men's words.

Herfried Münkler

Collier 36 times while Tamb. I, Tamb. II, Massacre, and Faustus were performed in the same time but 15, 7, 9 and 25 times respectively. Wagner VII. Imitated from the Works of Machiavelli by Christopher Mario London etc. Wagner op. XIII, I count religion but a childish toy, And hold there is no sin but ignorance. I am asham'd to hear such fooleries. Many will talk of title to a crown: What right had Caesar to the empery? Hence comes it that a strong-built citadel Commands much more than letters can import: Which maxim had [but] Phalaris observ'd, H'ad never bellow'd in a brazen bull, [25 Of great ones' envy: o'the poor petty wights Let me be envied and not pitied.

But whither am I bound? I come not, I, To read a lecture here in Britain, But to present the tragedy of a Jew, [30 Who smiles to see how full his bags are cramm'd; Which money was not got without my means. I crave but this, grace him as he deserves, And let him not be entertain'd the worse Because he favours me. Careful scruti- nation will find but two thoughts in this whole passage which come from Machiavelli; and even those at second- hand.

Lines 14 and 15 reflect the general tone of "Prin- cipe" 18, but savour more of Gentillet II, 1. Machiavel speaks of citadels in Prin. In line 13 is the poison idea, fathered upon Machiavelli by Harvey, of whom line 19 is also a reminiscence. J Verses 20 and Ante In the play itself there is not a single line taken! Lee, who studied the Florentine cf.

But this is one of the many cases where Klein's imagination got the better of him. Wie Marlowe selbst im Leben, lassen seine Helden auch in der Dichtung ihre Titanenkraft austoben; ihre Bethatigung ist sich selber Zweck. Sie alle kennen nur ein "Wollen". Es tritt ihnen kein Schicksal entgegen wie in der alten Tragodie, noch ein ethisches "Sollen" wie in der neueren.

Fischer "Zur Char, der Dram. Honigmann "Ueber den Char, des Shylocks" Jahrb. Rabbi Philipson: "The few in Eng. Elze had already observed that this Machiavellianism existed only in the poet: "In des Dichters Augen ist diese unerhorte Verbrecher-Laufbahn nichts als praktischer Macchiavellismus. VI, To use his own words is the best method. Being young, I studied physic, and began To practise first upon the Italian; There I enrich'd the priests with burials, And always kept the sexton's arms in ure With digging graves and ringing dead men's knells; And, after that, was I an engineer, And in the wars 'twixt France and Germany, Under pretence of helping Charles the Fifth, Slew friend and enemy with my stratagems: Then, after that, I was an usurer, And with extorting, cozening, forfeiting.

But mark how I am blest for plaguing them; - I have as much coin as will buy the town. A more incarnate fiend could hardly be imagined. Der machtige Trieb nach Selbsterhaltung , nach Gliickseligkeit , Macht uiid Reich thum, tritt in Kampf gegen die gauze Welt; die menschliche Natur ist gespalten, jenes Eine Urelement derselben. So steht der Jude da Aber auch der Gouverneur und 43 e is a murderer: only once openly; since he prefers secret poisoning 1. Selim Calymath, Christen wie Muhamedaner , handeln in gleichem schonungsloseu Egoismus. Dieser treibt sich im Juden bis zu einer Hohe, auf der er nothwendig sich selbst vernichtet.

He leads Lodowick and Mathias to death; also Friar Jacomo etc. When Jacomo converts Abigail: ,,0ne turn'd my daughter, therefore he shall die. It is generally assumed this suggested Shakspere's famous: ,,The Devil can cite Scripture" etc. As good dissemble that thou never mean'st, As first mean truth and then dissemble it: A counterfeit profession is better Than unseen hypocrisy. This, of course, is Gentillet II, 1 and "Principe" He considers treachery a kingly trade: "Why, is not this A kingly kind of trade, to purchase towns By treachery, and sell 'em by deceit?

II Tamb. This is the very gist of Machiavelli's teachings. He is also most subtle and far-seeing: - "No, Barabas is borne to better chance, And fram'd of finer mould than common men, That measure nought but by the present time. A reaching thought will search his deepest wits, And cast with cunning- for the time to come; For evils are apt to happen every day. No, Barabas, this must be look'd into; And, since by wrong thou gott'st authority, Maintain it bravely by firm policy; [10 At least, unprofitably lose it not ; For he that liveth in authority, And neither gets him friends nor fills his bags, Lives like the ass that Aesop speaketh of, That labours with a load of bread and wine, [15 And leaves it off to snap on thistle-tops: But Barabas will be more circumspect.

Begin betimes ; Occasion's bald behind : Slip not thine opportunity, for fear too late Thou seek'st for much, but canst not compass it. Vide ante 27, note 1. But lines 11 13 show plainly the influence of Gentillet, and may be compared with: "Thus, loving neither, will I live by both, Making a profit of my policy; And he from whom my most advantage comes, Shall be my friend.

This is the argument of "Principe" II. As the main drift of "Principe" 18 may be considered: - "Be rul'd by me, for in extremity We ought to make bar of no policy. He even believes that to follow the dictates of con- science means beggary: - ,,Haply some hapless man hath conscience, And for his conscience lives in beggary. Money is Barabas' very soul : "For, whilst I live, here lives my soul's sole hope, And, when I die, here shall my spirit walk" II, He believes it to be the source of all esteem: - "Or who is honour'd now but for his wealth" I, He declares himself: - " a covetous wretch.

That would for lucre's sake have sold my soul. He tells the audience he learned his art in Florence - from Machiavelli, of course : "We Jews can fawn like spaniels when we please; And when we grin we bite; yet are our looks As innocent and harmless as a lamb's. I learn'd in Florence how to kiss my hand, Heave up my shoulders when they call me dog, And duck as low as any bare-foot friar. And with her let it work like Borgia's wine, Whereof his sire the Pope was poisoned. His scheme of killing all the Turks at a banquet is that described in the "Principe" as used by Oliverotto da Fermo.

He dies blaspheming as Machiavelli was supposed to have done: - "Damn'd Christian dog's, and Turkish infidels! But now begins the extremity of heat To pinch me with intolerable pangs : Die, life! Finally, Ithamore declares her acts under the devil's control; which became the popular opinion concerning Machiavelli: - "Why, the devil invented a challenge, my master writ it, and I carried it " III, No better example could be given of the influence of this play, than, anticipating a little, by citing the case of Heywood, who edited the "Jew of Malta" in , and wrote in the court prologue : 2 " you shall find him still, all his projects, a sound Machiavill; And that's his character.

Eine Tragodie, deren Held ein von damonischer Geldleideuschaft und Ge- winnsucht durchgliihter Jude-Macchiavell, doch nur als Symbol und Reflex gleichsam des wahren Helden der Tragodie erscheint, der da ist der Staat-Jude; der Macchiavell-Jude, ein Macchiavelli- scher Principe-Giudeo, die Quintessenz von Macchiavell's Staatsdoctrin ; der principielle Eigenuutz als Herrschaftgrundsatz , die systematisirte absolute Selbstsucht als Staatsraison, die codificirte Raubsucht, sub specie der absoluten Geld-Anhaufungsgier, und diese in Gestalt eines Juden; unersattliche Geldsucht als eingefleischter Jude.

Fttrwahr eine ebenso grossartige, wie von tiefer Erfassung der Solidaritat des Juden- und Staats - Macchiavellismus zeugende Geschichtsanschauung ; in Rucksicht auf die tragische Blilme von epochemachender Conceptions- urspriinglichkeit. Here Matchiuell thou wast hatcht: Could not the same Planet inspire this pate of mine with some Rare stratagem, worthy a lasting character.

Immediately after Marlowe's play in the same year, the first instance is to be found of a man nick-named Machiavel. In the year after Nashe published "Tamburlaine became the prototype of the stage hero. Barrabas became the prototype of the stage villain. To enumerate the characters modelled on these creations of Marlowe would be to transcribe the leading dramatis personae of at least two thirds of the heroic dramas in vogue during the latter years of the 16 century.

John Bridges" ed. Herbert [] says, Woolfe was in special favour with the court of assistants, and chosen from his diligence in hunting out and giving intelligence of books disorderly printed: this gives point to the sobriquet. Grosart I, This he may have had from the "Principe"; but more likely from Gentillet who discourses much more at large on Savonarola: the words, "Machiavell, a pollitick not much affected to any Religion", certainly come from Gentillet. As will be seen, the words, "with my marginall notes", are of importance for Greene.

Further on in the same occurs this passage: - "Or have you not given him quoth Martin the Medium an Italian figge? That's a Machivillian tricke ; and, some of your mates are better acquainted with it. Again is found: x Vide Patericke "But it is no mervaile if this Atheist, who hath no religion doth play with Keligious deriding all, willing- also to per- suade a prince to forge a new one" etc.

Againe which worse was manie of them [the Queen's Counsellors] I slandered against mine owne knowledge : and I thought it enough, if I might but devise against them the vilest things of the world, to bring them in hatred with the credulous multitude: a divelish tricke, my sonnes, which I learned in Machi- vell, but take heede of it, for it asketh vengeance. J Again occurs the "Machiavellistes" ; 2 the second stanza of "The Author's Epitaph" runs thus: - "0! Few come within the compass of my curse - Wherein I did not some notorious ill: As kill a man, or else devise his death; Kavish a maid, or plot the way to do it; Accuse some innocent, and forswear myself; Set deadly enmity between two friends; Make poor men's cattle break their necks; Set fire on barns and hay-stacks in the night And bid the owners quench them with their tears.

Oft have I digg'd up dead men from their graves, And set them upright at their dear friends' doors, Even when their sorrows almost were forgot; And on their skins, as on the bark of trees, Have with my knife carved in Roman letters 'Let not your sorrow die, though I am dead. If there be devils, would I were a devil. Like Barabas he is ever for revenge. His lust is as characteristic of him, as usury was of Barabas. He dies blaspheming as Barabas did, and as Machiavelli was supposed to have done.

His discoursive accusation is in many mens hands, and I would to God the intended eifect of the discourse were not in some men's harts : howbeit, the same is learnedly confuted, not only by a religious french protestant mes. Philip Strozza, by vehement and zealous interrogation: In whom ought there to be more feare of God, then in a warriour, which everyday committing himselfe to infinite perils hath most neede of his helpe?

A right Italian sentence, a notable word, a fit preserve against the other venims which this Spider gathered out of old philosophers and heathen authors; for that it is the wit and dispo- sition of our reformative age, to gather precepts from those things which our fore -fathers in their learning judged no better then objections, and to study those matters for practice, which were first tought them for their safety, by knowing and avoiding them. The author had evidently studied not only Machiavelli carefully, but also Gentillet, from whom he adopted the atheism accusation, and that of "having borrowed out of heathen authors", which as we have seen was the French- man's hobby.

In this same year Nashe again refers to the "Prince", and quotes from it. It may be I am of some better sente then you take me for, and finding a Machivillian tricke in this plot of innovation, I was the more willing to lay Savanarol's example before your eyes, that having recourse unto Machiavell in whom it is recorded, you might see MachiaveVs judge- ment upon the same. His opinion is, that when such a peaze may be 55 In Marlowe's next play, "King Edward IF, the character of Mortimer shows the influence of Machiavellian study, though but slightly.

He uses Lightborn x to kill the King, and then has him murdered : 2 Marlowe pictures him as cloaking his villainy under religious hypocrisy, which trait is not to be found in Fabyan, the source of this play. Two other ideas go more directly to the "Principe" : - Mort. J Lightborn himself must have struck the popular mind as a great Machiavel: he knew even more ways of killing than Barabas. But yet I have a braver way than these. Ante p. XIX: 1st.

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VI Ill, 21 : 1st. II Fie, I am asham'd, however that I seem, To think a word of such a simple sound, Of so great matter should be made the ground. Shakspere was the next dramatist to mention Machia- velli: viz. York Alencon that notorious Machiavel! Pope took the line, "Alengon Machiavel", out of the text, and put it in the margin. Henry VI Third Part Matchevile F. Clarke-Wright Vol. Delius I, Singer-Lloyd Vol. Dieser Name wird hier ganz sprich- wortlich genommen: der Inhalt des Buches vom Flirsten war von jeher vorhanden, seit es Tyrannen gab : Macchiavell hat ihn nur zuerst anfgeschrieben.

Mit einem grundehrlichen Gemiit hatte er die Anmafsung, ,,den morderischen Macchiavell in die Lehre" nehmen zu wollen, und kramt Alles, was er sich von dergleichen Kimsteii gemerkt hat, breit und lehrhaft aus. This is ex- actly what the Elizabethans were doing. It is interesting to compare Lessing also on Corneille. Schlegel I, Alen "To say the truth, it is your policy To save your subjects from such massacre And ruthless slaughters as are daily seen By our proceeding- in hostility; And therefore take this compact of a truce, Although you break it when your pleasure serves.

That Shakspere had Gentillet in mind is perfectly evident : the French protestant dedicated his work to Alenc,on, and received ridicule in return from the notorious Machia- vellian. Not of course, that it is for a moment conjectured he confounded the two generations. She is portrayed with the same malignant prejudice which Peele applied to Longshank's noble wife Eleanor in his "Edward I" to curry popular applause in defaming Spain, just as has here been done in traducing France.

XVHI: 1st, Fior. VIII, : also Gent. No copy has as yet been found; it was probably something in the Barabas line. Shakspere expanded this to seventy-two. Since Shakspere portrays his Richard as the schoolmaster of Machiavelli, the parallel passages are given. I can add colours to the Camelion, And for a need change shapes with Proteus, And set the aspiring Catalin to schoole.

Can I do this, and cannot get the crowne? Tush were it ten times higher, He put it downe. I'll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall, I'll slay more gazers than the ba- silisk ; I'll play the orator as well as Nestor, 1 "Machiavel: A play acted at the Rose Theatre in " Hazlitt Man.

Cibber had often lamented that Sandford's masterly performance was not rewarded with that applause, which inferior actors met with, merely because they stood in more amiable characters I can add colours to the Chame- leon, Change shades with Proteus for advantages, And set the mur'drous Machiavel J to school. Can I do this, and cannot get a crown? Ill, 2 Pope put this "Machiavel" line also in the margin; Warburton 2 wanted to replace "the aspiring Cataline".

Matchevil F. Collier remarks: "In the time of Shakespeare, the name of Machiavel had become almost synonymous with a wily, un- scrupulous politician. Notwithstanding the anachronism, he therefore substituted "murderous Machiavel" for "aspiring Cataline" as it stands in "The True Tragedy" , because he thought the allusion would be better understood.

IV, Athenaeum July 29, Steevens remarks: "This is not the first proof I have met with, that Shakspeare, in his attempts to familiarize ideas, has dimini- shed their propriety. John-Steev-Keed V, 6 Collier 4 The Singer-Lloyd ed. Machiavel is mentioned in various books of the poet's age as the great exemplar of profound politicians. An amusing instance of the odium attached to his name is to be found in Gill's Logonomia Anglica, : "Et ne semper Sidneios loquamur, audi epilogum fabulae quam docuit Boreali dialecto poeta, titulumque fuit reus Machivellus: Machil iz hanged And brenned iz his buks Though Machil is hanged Yet he is not wranged, The Di'el haz him fanged In his cruked cluks.

Maulwurfartig wiihlt er unter der Erde, in 62 the very passage, which Greene acknowledged as the source of one of his most pronounced "Machiavellian maxims". J Peele also wrote, probably at this time, his "Battle of Alcazar", in which the moor, Muly Muhamet forms the connecting link between Barabas and Eleazar in "Lusts Dominion": Muly is a wretched villain; one who can: - " submit himself and live below, Make show of friendship, promise, vow, and swear, Till by the virtue of his fair pretence He makes himself possessor of such fruits As grow upon such great advantages.

He cites no maxims, however, but dies cursing as all these tyrants do. Nicholas Breton opened Jiis popular citations from Machiavelli. Ein Schmied verrath ims zuerst seine Umtriebe. Er thut jetzt weit Argeres als die Chronisten ihm zuschreiben. Er lafst sich nach Irland schicken, urn ein Heer zu sammeln und dann gegen den Monarchen zu fiihren, entlafst es aber, da er sich noch zu schwach fiihlt, und spielt den Derniitigen, bis ihm koniglicher Wort- bruch erlaubt, mit einem lauten, edel klingenden Pathos dem Hofe oifen entgegenzutreten und zu siegen.

Marlowe, Greene, Shakspere citiert Macchiavelli ; die Potentaten der Zeit iiberitrugen seine riick- sichtslosen antikisierenden Machtlehren in die Wirklichkeit; sein Typus des Eroberers aus eigener Kraft als des einzigen der sich auf die Dauer halten kann ward in Marlowes Tamerlan gleichsam verkorpert , und wie ein Studienkopf aus derselben Schule uimmt sich York aus. But this head is eminently Marlowesque and not Machia- vellian.

Marcu, Valeriu [WorldCat Identities]

Langhorne This is from Barabas ; since Machiavelli nowhere instructs how to obtain wealth. Gabriel Harvey also continues. Which, sir? Your Annotations upon Machiavel. No Sir. The idea of "annotations upon Machiavel", certainly goes back to the phrase of Greene's intimate acquaintance Nashe 2 ,,my works of Machiavell, with my marginal notes and scholies thereupon". Ateukin is, however, a very weak villain; to be sure, he is called a fox, 3 lives by "cozening the king", 4 and counsels him to kill Dorothea ; 5 but as soon as his plans go wrong he shows himself a repentant coward. Ida, I perceive the fox at hand.

To end another's life to save his own: For you are not as common people be Who die and perish with a few men's tears; But if you fail, the state doth whole default, The realm is rent in twain in such a loss. This is as old in English drama as "Tancred and Ghismunda", and from Seneca, no doubt, though Greene may have been thinking of the Florentine. Again: - '2. Thus, we see, Ateukin seeking to gratify the king's lust and his own ambition, is not a Marlowesque villain, but one in the future style of Beaumont and Fletcher, more usually entrusted with a royal "liaison" than with ,,ragioni degli stati".

Greene's play "Alphonsus" is a very palpable imitation of "Tamburlaine. Vide "Selimus". Selimus is Tamburlaine with a little of Barabas added to him: he wades to the crown through blood, and then kills all his helpers; but he uses poisons, assassins, and such contrivances which Tamburlaine did not. He exclaims: - "Let them view iii me The perfect picture of right tyrannic. He is a religious hypocrite: - "I count it sacriledge, for to be holy Or reverence this thread-bare name of good; And scorue religion; it disgraces man.

All this we have had before in the Guise : incontinently upon the last passage follows: - "I like Ly Sander's counsell passing well; If that I cannot speed with lyon's force, To cloath my complots in a foxe's skin. This we have also had in Gloucester, as well as in Barabas. What though the world of nations me hate? Hate is peculiar to a princes state. This is "the better be feared than loved" maxim already met with, linked to two ideas, which Machiavelli expressly forbids : disrespect of people, and hate, which fear does not necessarily imply.

In it he attributes to his father, Machiavellian egoism: - - "he had this Philosophic written in a ring, Tu tibi cura, 2 which precept he curiously observed, being in selfe-love so religious, as he held it no point of charitie to part with anything, of which he living might make use.

His dying advice to Lucanio is: "Stand not on conscience in causes of profit: but heape treasure upon treasure, 8 for the time of neede: yet seeme to be devout, else shalt thou be held vile XVII: 1st. Barabas Ego mihimet sum semper proximus. This whole passage was inspired by Marlowe : Maehia- velli never counsels for pecuniary profit. And all this from Machiavelli! Further on is the much mooted passage: "Wonder not for with thee wil I first begin thou famous gracer of Tragedians, that Greene, who hath said with thee like the foole in his heart, There is no God, should now give glorie unto his greatnesse : Why should thy excellent wit, his gift, be so blinded, that thou shouldst give no glory to the giver?

Is it pestilent Machivilian pollicie that thou hast studied? What are his rules but Cf. Everyone will remember Byron's: - "Alas! Take lives, take wifes, take aught except men's purses, As Machiavel shows those in purple raiment. Such is the shortest way to general curses" etc.

Don Juan X, For if Sic volo, sic jubeoj hold in those that are able to command : and it be lawful Fas Et nefas to doe anything that is beneficial! The brocher of this Diabolicall Atheisme is dead, and in his life had never the felicitie he aimed at, but as he began in craft, lived in feare, and ended in dispaire, Quam inscrutabilia sunt Dei judicia?

This murderer of many brethren, had his conscience seared like Caine; this betrayer of him that gave his life for him, inherited the portion of Judas : this Apostata perished as ill as Julian: And wilt thou my friend be his Disciple. Looke unto me, by him perswaded to that libertie, and thou shalt finde it an infernall bondage. All commentators have had their say on this passage. After Storozhenko's carefull examination of all the arguments on the question, little remains but to give his results.

Simpson 2 first insisted upon the reference being meant for Machiavelli, which is perfectly apparent. The broacher of the Ma- chiavellian doctrine was Machiavelli, who in Greene's day was generally believed in England to have perished by his own hand". Academy: Mar. The words from, "who in Greene's day etc. So much then for Greene, who followed in the footsteps of Marlowe 3 in ascribing auri sacra fames to Machiavelli's teachings , and Gentillet in denouncing him as an atheist. To this he added his own damnable forgery, that Machiavelli died cowardly by his own hand, as Judas was supposed to have done.

Simpson had absolutely no authority for his statement that "in Greene's day Machiavelli was generally believed in England to have perished like Judas by his own hand" ; this was Greene's own foul fabrication. But what more was to be expected from this blaggard liar, puking forth his putrid surfeit from a drunkard's death-bed! The next dramatist to mention Machiavelli was Nashe in this same year. Thus in "Summer's Last Will and Testament": Winter ; 'Nay I will justify, there is no vice Which learning and vile knowledge brought not in, Or in whose praise some learned have not wrote.

Discorsi I, Byron's own note to "Childe Harold" IV, Gluttony Epicurus doth defend. The passage explains itself, and can refer only to the Trince". But this is not enough to be fathered upon Machiavelli; we have heard, "The Art of murder Machiavel hath penned", now read what instructions this "Art of Murther" gives. J Then for a finale to this demoniac capriccio: - ,,I comprehend Queen-Mother to Henry and Navarre.

What more could be expected, when we find this passage from one of the best Italian scholars among the literati, - - from ,,The English Aretine", who certainly knew Machiavelli in the original! I Compare with this such clumsy wit as, - "Apulius Asse was a pregnant Lucianist A golden Asse : Machiavel's Asse of the same metall and a deepe Politicaii like his founder He that remembreth the goveruenient of Balaams Asse.

Machiavel's Asse. Machiavel's Asse, myself since I was dub- bed an asse by the only Monarch [Nashe] of Asses, have found savoury herbs amongst nettles". But still even he cannot keep from calumniating- him in the Elizabethan spirit, using the fact of his banishment most unfairly. Florence more hardly tollerate Macchia- vel, a poysonous politician : Venice most hardly endure Arretine, a poysonous ribald: had they [Greene and Nashe] lived in absolute Monarchies they would have seemed utterly insupportable.

The comparison of Greene and Nashe to Machiavelli and Aretine is facetious enough ; but here again we see the influence of Gentillet, who had already denounced the Florentine as poisonous and as hunted out of his native city. Harvey, also, brings Plutarch and Machiavelli together where they were often confounded in the drama: "Lysander's Fox, Ulysses' Fox. Nashe again, in his "Christs Teares over Jerusalem", heaps almost incredible ignominy upon Machiavelli: J "I will not enter in Macchiavel's discourses, Jovius Elogyes" etc.

We have not English words enough to unfold it. Positions and instructions have they to make their whores a hundred times more whorish and treacherous, then theyr own wicked aifects resigned to the devils disposing can make them. IX, Then follows what simply cannot be quoted - - and Machiavelli was the author of this! But here, as in his other defamations, Nashe was merely following the general lead, and pandering to popular prejudice; for in an epistle prefixed to this very book the next year, occur passages which show a good knowledge of the real Machiavelli!

After the mention of Machiavelli in Henry VI 1 and 3 , we may safely conclude, had Shakspere known his works, he would certainly have used them in portraying Eichard III. Gloucester is a "dreadful minister of hell" "subtle, false and treacherous" Glo. But then I sigh, and, with a piece of scripture, l Many courses there be as Machiavell inspiredly sets downe which in themselves seem singular and vertuous, but if a man follow them they wilbe his utter subversion, others that seeme absurd, odious, and vitious, that well looked into will breed him most ease.

Tell them, that God bids us do good for evil: And thus I clothe my naked villainy With old odd ends stol'n forth of holy writ, And seem a saint when most I play the devil. These two subterfuges are Machiavellian ; but we have already had both in Barabas and in the Guise. Eichard knows, 'that fearful commenting Is leaden servitor to dull delay.

Delay leads impotent and snail-paced beggary; Then fiery expedition be my wing, Jove's Mercury, and herald for a king. Machiavelli also lays much emphasis upon rapidity in decision and action; but this again we have had before in Barabas. As Eichmond says, he is: - "One raised in blood, and one in blood establish'd; One that made means to come by what he hath, And slaughter'd those that were the means to help him. Eichard thinks: "Conscience is but a word that cowards use. VII ; but this lay nearer Shakspere in his historical sources. Again Gentillet II, 1 Prin.

XVII 9, Prin. XVII 10, Prin. VII 12, Prin. XVII might be cited as eminently dis- played in Eichard; but all of these had already been used by Marlowe : and all Eichard's fierce egoism was in Barabas ' Cf. Ill, 7 "Enter Gloucester aloft, between two Bishops". This was Buckingham's counsel. We can only conclude Shakspere did not know Machiavelli in the original; but drew from Marlowe, J and from history : 2 that Eichard was considered a Machiavellian "par excellence" by Elizabethans, was natural enough after what has been seen of the popular prejudice.

His character does not grow upon us; from the first it is complete. Mind and Art". Eichard III was the school-master of Machiavelli, not the pupil. So gut wusste Shakespeare was er zur Charakteristik Eichards mit diesem Namen an dieser Stelle wollte, aus der man haufig nichts weiter herausgefunden hat als den Anachronismus zum Beweise des unwissenden Shakespeare.

Use of Stage" New Sh. II, - "he [Eich. Ill] comes on the stage as the ideal Machiavellian prince" - certainly needs qualification ; and that of Gervinus Shak.