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Mental health services. Planning and coordinating healthcare. Pregnancy and birth services. A-Z A-Z. Conditions and treatments. Healthy living. Services and support. Service profiles. Blog Blog. Blog authors. Podcast Podcast. Vitamin B Share show more. Listen show more. More show more. The B-group vitamins are a collection of eight water-soluble vitamins essential for various metabolic processes. Extended cooking, food processing and alcohol can destroy or reduce the availability of many of these vitamins. It is important not to self-diagnose a vitamin deficiency, because some vitamins can be toxic if taken incorrectly.
See your doctor or dietitian for advice. Vitamins naturally occur in food and are needed in very small amounts for various bodily functions such as energy production and making red blood cells. There are 13 vitamins that our body needs, eight of which make up the B-group or B-complex vitamins.
The B-group vitamins do not provide the body with fuel for energy, even though supplement advertisements often claim they do. It is true though that without B-group vitamins the body lacks energy. The body uses energy-yielding nutrients such as carbohydrates, fat and protein for fuel. The B-group vitamins help the body to use that fuel. Other B-group vitamins play necessary roles such as helping cells to multiply by making new DNA. Vitamin B in food Even though the B-group vitamins are found in many foods, they are water soluble and delicate.
They are easily destroyed, particularly by alcohol and cooking.
Food processing can also reduce the amount of B-group vitamins in foods, making white flours, breads and rice less nutritious than their wholegrain counterparts. The body has a limited capacity to store most of the B-group vitamins except B12 and folate, which are stored in the liver.velitiridre.cf/frauen-kennenlernen-in-duesseldorf.php
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A person who has a poor diet for a few months may end up with B-group vitamins deficiency. For this reason, it is important that adequate amounts of these vitamins be eaten regularly as part of a well-balanced, nutritious diet. Vitamin B supplements Taking B-group vitamin supplements can sometimes mask deficiencies of other vitamins. It is also important not to self-diagnose a vitamin deficiency because some vitamins can be toxic if taken incorrectly. Types of vitamin B There are eight types of vitamin B: thiamin B1 riboflavin niacin pantothenic acid biotin vitamin B6 pyridoxine folate called folic acid when included in supplements vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin.
Thiamin B1 Thiamin is also known as vitamin B1 and helps to convert glucose into energy and has a role in nerve function. More information about thiamin includes: Good sources of thiamin — include wholemeal cereal grains, seeds especially sesame seeds , legumes, wheatgerm, nuts, yeast and pork. In Australia, it is mandatory that white and wholemeal flour used for bread is fortified with thiamin. Thiamin deficiency — is generally found in countries where the dietary staple is white rice.
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Symptoms include confusion, irritability, poor arm or leg or both coordination, lethargy, fatigue and muscle weakness. Alcohol reduces thiamin absorption in the gut and increases its excretion from the kidneys. Symptoms of the disease include involuntary movement of the eyeball, paralysis of the eye muscle, staggering and mental confusion.
Riboflavin B2 Riboflavin is primarily involved in energy production and helps vision and skin health. More information about riboflavin includes: Good sources of riboflavin — include milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, wholegrain breads and cereals, egg white, leafy green vegetables, meat, yeast, liver and kidney.
Riboflavin deficiency ariboflavinosis — is rare and is usually seen along with other B-group vitamin deficiencies. People at risk include those who consume excessive amounts of alcohol and those who do not consume milk or milk products. Symptoms include an inflamed tongue painful, smooth, purple-red tongue , cracks and redness in the tongue and corners of the mouth, anxiety, inflamed eyelids and sensitivity to light, hair loss, reddening of the cornea and skin rash.
Niacin B3 Niacin is essential for the body to convert carbohydrates, fat and alcohol into energy. It helps maintain skin health and supports the nervous and digestive systems. Unlike other B-group vitamins, niacin is very heat stable and little is lost in cooking. More information about niacin includes: Good sources of niacin — include meats, fish, poultry, milk, eggs, wholegrain breads and cereals, nuts, mushrooms and all protein-containing foods.
Excessive intake — large doses of niacin produce a drug-like effect on the nervous system and on blood fats. While favourable changes in blood fats are seen, side effects include flushing, itching, nausea and potential liver damage. Niacin deficiency pellagra — people who drink excessive amounts of alcohol or live on a diet almost exclusively based on corn are at risk of pellagra.
Others causes are associated with digestive problems where the body does not absorb niacin efficiently. The main symptoms of pellagra are commonly referred to as the three Ds — dementia, diarrhoea and dermatitis. Other symptoms include an inflamed and swollen tongue, irritability, loss of appetite, mental confusion, weakness and dizziness. This disease can lead to death if not treated. Pantothenic acid B5 Pantothenic acid is needed to metabolise carbohydrates, proteins, fats and alcohol as well as produce red blood cells and steroid hormones.
Good sources of pantothenic acid are widespread and found in a range of foods, but some good sources include liver, meats, milk, kidneys, eggs, yeast, peanuts and legumes. Pantothenic acid deficiency is extremely rare. Symptoms include loss of appetite, fatigue and insomnia, constipation, vomiting and intestinal distress. Vitamin B6 pyridoxine Pyridoxine is needed for protein and carbohydrate metabolism, the formation of red blood cells and certain brain chemicals. It influences brain processes and development, immune function and steroid hormone activity. Some facts about vitamin B6 include: Good sources of pyridoxine — include cereal grains and legumes, green and leafy vegetables, fish and shellfish, meat and poultry, nuts, liver and fruit.
Excessive intake of pyridoxine — mostly due to supplementation, can lead to harmful levels in the body that can damage nerves. Symptoms include walking difficulties and numbness in the hands and feet. Large doses of B6 taken over a long period can lead to irreversible nerve damage. Premenstrual syndrome PMS and carpal tunnel syndrome — there is some evidence that vitamin B6 may be useful in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome and PMS. Seek advice from a doctor before using large doses of this supplement above mg per day because of the danger of overdose and nerve damage.
Pyridoxine deficiency — people who drink excessive alcohol, women especially those on the contraceptive pill , the elderly and people with thyroid disease are at particular risk of deficiency. Symptoms include insomnia, depression, anaemia, smooth tongue and cracked corners of the mouth, irritability, muscle twitching, convulsions, confusion and dermatitis. Biotin B7 Biotin B7 is needed for energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis. High biotin intake can contribute to raised blood cholesterol levels.
Good sources of biotin include cauliflower, egg yolks, peanuts, liver, chicken, yeast and mushrooms. Biotin deficiency is very rare because biotin is widely distributed in foods and is only required in small amounts. Over-consumption of raw egg whites over periods of several months by bodybuilders, for example, can induce deficiency because a protein in the egg white inhibits biotin absorption.
Symptoms include pale or grey skin, cracked sore tongue, depression, hallucinations, abnormal heart actions, loss of appetite, nausea, dry skin and scaly dermatitis, hair loss, muscle pain, and weakness and fatigue. Folic acid folate or B9 Folate is needed to form red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. It helps the development of the foetal nervous system, as well as DNA synthesis and cell growth. Women of child-bearing age need a diet rich in folate.
If planning a pregnancy, you should consider taking supplements or eating fortified foods vitamins added to processed food. This is important to reduce risks such as spina bifida in the baby. Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate and is used extensively in dietary supplements and food fortification. Some facts about folate include: Good sources of folate — these include green leafy vegetables, legumes, seeds, liver, poultry, eggs, cereals and citrus fruits.
Excessive intake — folate is generally considered non-toxic, although excessive intakes above 1, mg per day over a period of time can lead to malaise, irritability and intestinal dysfunction. The main risk with excessive folate intake is that it can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency, so it is best to consume these two vitamins within the recommended amounts. Folate deficiency — the symptoms include weight loss, tiredness, fatigue and weakness, folate-deficiency anaemia megaloblastic anaemia and during pregnancy an increased risk of a neural tube defects such as spina bifida for the baby.
Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin Vitamin B12 helps to produce and maintain the myelin surrounding nerve cells, mental ability, red blood cell formation and the breaking down of some fatty acids and amino acids to produce energy. Vitamin B12 has a close relationship with folate, as both depend on the other to work properly.
Good sources of B12 include liver, meat, milk, cheese and eggs, almost anything of animal origin.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is most commonly found in the elderly, vegans vitamin B12 is only found in foods from animal sources and breastfed babies of vegan mothers. Symptoms include tiredness and fatigue, lack of appetite, weight loss, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, vision loss, smooth tongue and mental problems, such as depression and memory loss. More information here. Send us your feedback. Rate this website Your comments Questions Your details. Excellent Good Average Fair Poor. Next Submit Now Cancel. Please note that we cannot answer personal medical queries.
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Langer, M. In short-segment Hirschsprung disease, nerve cells are missing from the last part of the large intestine. In long-segment Hirschsprung disease, nerve cells are missing from most or all of the large intestine and sometimes the last part of the small intestine. Rarely, nerve cells are missing in the entire large and small intestine.
What are the bowel, large intestine, colon, rectum, and anus? What causes Hirschsprung disease? Who gets Hirschsprung disease? What are the signs and symptoms of Hirschsprung disease? Most often, an infant or a child with Hirschsprung disease will have other symptoms, including growth failure swelling of the abdomen, or belly unexplained fever vomiting The symptoms can vary; however, how they vary does not depend on how much of the intestine is missing nerve cells. Symptoms in Newborns An early symptom in some newborns is failure to have a first bowel movement within 48 hours after birth.
Symptoms in Toddlers and Older Children Symptoms of Hirschsprung disease in toddlers and older children may include not being able to pass stools without enemas or suppositories. How does a doctor know if my child has Hirschsprung disease? A doctor will know if your child has Hirschsprung disease based on a physical exam a medical and family history symptoms test results If your doctor suspects Hirschsprung disease, he or she may refer your child to a pediatric gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases in children—for additional evaluation.
Medical Tests A doctor who suspects Hirschsprung disease will do one or more of the following tests: Rectal biopsy. A rectal biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a small piece of tissue from the rectum for examination with a microscope. The biopsy is not painful and babies may even fall asleep during the procedure.
In most cases, doctors do not use pain medicine or anesthesia. However, for older children doctors sometimes will use medicine to relieve anxiety or reduce the memory of the test. A pediatric surgeon performs this procedure, in which he or she will remove a thicker piece of tissue.
The child will receive anesthesia. A doctor will examine the tissue under a microscope. The rectal biopsy is the best test to diagnose or rule out Hirschsprung disease. Abdominal x-ray. An x-ray is a picture created by using radiation and recorded on film or on a computer. The amount of radiation is small. An x-ray technician performs the x-ray at a hospital or an outpatient center, and a radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets the images.
The child does not need anesthesia. The child will lie on a table or stand during the x-ray. The technician may ask the child to change positions for additional pictures. An x-ray of the abdomen may show intestinal obstruction. Anorectal Manometry. A doctor performs anorectal manometry in a hospital. Lower GI series. A lower GI series is an x-ray exam that doctors use to look at the large intestine.
An x-ray technician and a radiologist perform the test at a hospital or an outpatient center, and a radiologist interprets the images. A child does not need anesthesia and does not need a bowel prep for the test. A technician performs this test on newborns, toddlers, and older children. A lower GI series can show changes in the bowel and help doctors diagnose obstructions.
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How is Hirschsprung disease treated? Pull-through Procedure During a pull-through procedure, a surgeon removes the part of the large intestine that is missing nerve cells and connects the healthy part to the anus. Ostomy Surgery Ostomy surgery is a surgical procedure that reroutes the normal movement of the stool out of the body when a part of the bowel is removed. Ostomy surgeries include the following: Ileostomy surgery is when the surgeon connects the small intestine to the stoma.
Colostomy surgery is when the surgeon connects part of the large intestine to the stoma. The doctor will ask about the individual's medical history and any additional symptoms. They may carry out a physical examination and blood tests or refer the person to a specialist. Weight gain and fluctuations in weight can happen for a variety of reasons. Many people progressively gain weight as they age or make changes to their lifestyle.
However, fast weight gain can be a sign of an underlying health condition, such as a problem with the thyroid, kidneys, or heart. Anyone who experiences rapid, unexplained weight gain should see their doctor to determine the underlying cause and develop a treatment plan. Article last reviewed by Wed 3 April All references are available in the References tab. Aubin, H. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: Meta-analysis. Chalasani, N.
Ascites: A common problem in people with cirrhosis. Cushing's syndrome. Green, M. How to handle hypothyroidism: Suspect, detect, defeat. Kidney failure. Kyle, T. Markwald, R. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.
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