Terrain Analysis of Afghanistan
Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. The recent end of the Human Terrain System run by the US Army has brought to a close one of the most recent insidious challenges to the field of anthropology.
But while the anthropological elements of the programme have been well documented, and contested, its historical roots have not. The HTS and cultural knowledge apparatus of the American defence establishment draw deeply upon the wells of British scholar administrators of the nineteenth century. Of particular importance, especially in regard to Afghanistan, is Mountstuart Elphinstone who published the foundational text about the country, An account of the Kingdom of Kabul , years ago.
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Hopkins E-mail address: bhopkins email. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law ; common law including United State law ; customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law including Islamic law. An addition. Citizenship : This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents.
Suffrage : This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted. Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.
Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a. Legislative branch : This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.
The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Judicial branch : This entry includes three subfields. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.
A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.
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The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Political parties and leaders : This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted.
International organization participation : This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. Diplomatic representation in the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.
FAX:  Diplomatic representation from the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. FAX: [00 93] Flag description : This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
National symbol s : A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
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National anthem : A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. Economy :: Afghanistan. Economy - overview : This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.
It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur. GDP official exchange rate : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. Gross national saving : Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.
The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.
GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.
Agriculture - products : This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.
Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.
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Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line : National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.
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Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.
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The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index : This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.
The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.
These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.
Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
Fiscal year : This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
Commercial bank prime lending rate : This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. Stock of narrow money : This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money : This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit : This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.
The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information. Market value of publicly traded shares : This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated.
It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange. Current account balance : This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.
Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. India Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified.
This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.
Exchange rates : This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.
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Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. Energy :: Afghanistan. Electricity access : This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.
Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. Electricity - production : This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - consumption : This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - exports : This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - imports : This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity : This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity. A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity - from nuclear fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from hydroelectric plants : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity - from other renewable sources : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermal , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Crude oil - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl. Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
Natural gas - production : This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - consumption : This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports : This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - imports : This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.
Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy : This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Communications :: Afghanistan. Telephones - fixed lines : This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Telephones - mobile cellular : This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed Telephone system : This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.
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CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. Broadcast media : This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services. Internet users : This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection.
The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months. Broadband - fixed subscriptions : This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. Transportation :: Afghanistan. National air transport system : This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix : This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.
The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration suffix of one to fi. YA Request Trial Download Sample. Terrain Analysis. The Terrain Analysis series provides easy access to intelligence on: Populated Places: From small towns and villages to major cities, local road conditions, building characteristics, water resources, housing density, sanitary conditions, telecommunications infrastructure, and population levels Roads and Bridges: Load capacities, surface type e.
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