Lueur dailleurs (FICTION) (French Edition)
Bowles, on the other hand, has no scruples about repeating the everyday word garbage :. Indeed, while Ben Jelloun seeks to vary both syntactic structure and vocabulary, Bowles not only tolerates repetition but exploits it as an emphatic device. A striking example of the way in which Bowles exploits repetition and Ben Jelloun apparently seeks to avoid it is provided by the following passages:. In both of these passages, there are essentially two assertions: that the father killed Abdelqader, and that Mohamed witnessed this event.
In English, these facts are asserted repeatedly using the same two verbs, kill, which is used six times, and see, which recurs four times. The sentence He killed him is repeated four times, and another four sentences begin with I saw. In contrast, for the first assertion the French version resorts to the verb assassiner as well as tuer, and also uses the nouns meurtre and assassin , thus varying the structure as well as the vocabulary, while for the second it includes the verb assister as well as voir.
In addition, the French uses the specific expressions tordre le cou and gicler, whereas in the English we find, not the specific term strangle , but the more general twist his neck around, and the blood is simply said to run out. The tendency for French discourse to favour the use of nouns where other languages, English in particular, would use verbs, adjectives or adverbs has also been noted by more than one commentator see, for instance Vinay and Darbelnet and Hervey and Higgins, who provide many examples Moreover, the tendency to avoid lexical and syntactic repetition in the French text may be related, not to a characteristic specific to Ben Jelloun, but to a very general tendency for such repetitions to be judged negatively in French discourse.
The fact that French writers resist repetitions of this type, and indeed that apprentice writers in French schools are taught actively to avoid them, has been noted by a number of scholars, including Bonnard , Ben-Ari and Delisle ; French has been explicitly contrasted with English, which is judged to make greater use of repetition Grellet , Ballard , and Quillard shows that translators moving from English to French have a strong tendency to remove lexical repetition.
However, not all the contrasts can simply be subsumed under such general patterns. There also seems to be a fundamental difference of tone between the two versions. In so many places, the choices made by Bowles seem to combine to create what is very much a child-like tone. The brevity of the sentences, the lack of complex structures, the very basic vocabulary and the use of repetition all contribute to this stylistic effect. For instance, whereas the English in 21 genuinely sounds like the words of a young child, the French in 22 definitely does not; we cannot imagine the young uncultured Mohamed of the novel using this type of style.
No such references are present in the French version, where the child seems to be an autonomous agent needing no guidance:. Other contrasts include the choice of metaphors used in the two translations. Both feature a metaphor in the description of the stars as seen by Mohamed when he has run outside to hide following the strangling of Abdelqader. But their effects are very different:.
The English offers a simple concrete image of the stars as lamps and the moon as a bigger one, with the religious reference to God as in control of all this. The French instead personifies the stars and introduces the legal notion of witnesses. Again, one might judge the first image to be more likely than the second to occur to a young child.
Other differences between the content of the two texts relate to the degree of horror which they convey. The descriptions of the dead animals they see on the roadside as they are making their way towards Tangier are a case in point:. The boy with whom Mohamed searches the bins is also presented in a much less shocking way in French; here the only information given is about his inadequate clothing, whereas the English also goes into sickening detail about the unhealthy state of his skin:.
From examples like these, we can see that, where the description is concerned with signs of poverty and sickness, it is Bowles who uses the more specific detail while Ben Jelloun is less explicit. Thus both versions state that the father insulted everyone, including God, but only the French portrait is softened by the remark that he then repented of these misdeeds:. Likewise, when at the funeral a man asks Mohamed whether he loved his brother, there is an interesting contrast between the two versions of his reply:.
A final difference between the two versions concerns the degree to which they domesticate the Moroccan culture-specific references within the text. Bowles is happy to retain an Arabic flavour here and there, notably in the religious references. God is consistently designated by the name Allah , as we have already seen in examples 9 , 29 , 41 and 43 ; and in the ritual of hen-killing, the appropriate formula Bismillah. Allahou akbar is reproduced in this form, with no gloss or explanation see example Ben Jelloun, in contrast, adopts the norms of his French-speaking audience here, using the word Dieu and not invoking the formula at all see examples 10 , 42 and These contrasting strategies, not surprisingly, correspond to those used by the two novelists in their own works.
Thus Bowles, in his novel The Sheltering Sky , frequently incorporates into his text words and phrases in Arabic, French and Spanish, without feeling the need to provide any gloss or explanation:. Ben Jelloun, on the other hand, seems to take special pains to provide French translations even for what are quite culture-specific Moroccan references. Bowles also makes use of the term Nazarene see example 24 , which might indeed be somewhat puzzling for an Anglophone audience, for whom it will probably evoke only a reference to Nazareth.
It is, however, immediately recognizable to those familiar with Morocco as a representation of the Moroccan Arabic term nsrani , used as a general term to designate Europeans living in Morocco. Apparently he does not feel it necessary to clarify every local reference for his readers. A last striking example of the degree to which Ben Jelloun, in contrast to Bowles, seeks to orient his text towards his French readers is provided by the metalinguistic comment he includes on the placename Ain Ketiout , a neighbourhood of Tangier.
This time the comment is not even separated off in a footnote, but inserted directly into the narrative, so that we have the impression that it is the child narrator who is remarking on the prettiness of the name. He would probably have been as oblivious to any aesthetic appeal of its literal content as the present-day inhabitants of this neighbourhood seem to be.
Predictably, then, Bowles includes the name but without comment:. This last pair of examples could be said to epitomize the different approaches of the two translators. Ben Jelloun offers a much more elaborate, polished discourse, guiding his readers through the story with comments and explanations; rather than sensing the voice of a child, we detect a more sophisticated narrator who is obviously concerned about the impact of his text on outsider readers.
In fact, however, far from presenting the text to his fellow countrymen, we get the distinct impression that Ben Jelloun is firmly targeting a European francophone audience. The book was admired for the authenticity of its voice, the way its frank descriptions of a tortured childhood horrified yet rang true. However, in the discussion above I have tried to show the extent to which the two texts differ in both style and content. The degree of contrast evident in this analysis of only a few pages of the book should be enough to demonstrate the extent to which the individual choices made by a translator, page after page, though they may appear trivial when taken one by one, can have an accumulative effect which determines the overall impact of a text.
While some of the stylistic differences noted above might simply be traceable to the different norms of English and French discourse, these are accompanied by differences of content which seem to produce a more fundamental opposition between the two versions. One might almost question whether readers of the French text can truly be said to have experienced the same book as readers of the English one. Thus, while Bowles and Ben Jelloun are each assumed to have provided a faithful transmission of the voice of Choukri, they may also each have overlaid their own voice on top of the source one.
When a translator is also an accomplished author in his own right, as in these two cases, then the result may ultimately be that one voice takes on the accent of another. Another example where the French is more explicit than the English is seen in the contrast between 13 and 14 , where the narrator seems to be summing up his experience of the difference between the two sexes: The stark generalization encapsulated in the two syllable sentence Men hit , whose concision is achieved by using the verb hit intransitively, seems more shocking than the French sentence with its unexceptional syntax.
A striking example of the way in which Bowles exploits repetition and Ben Jelloun apparently seeks to avoid it is provided by the following passages: In both of these passages, there are essentially two assertions: that the father killed Abdelqader, and that Mohamed witnessed this event. But their effects are very different: The English offers a simple concrete image of the stars as lamps and the moon as a bigger one, with the religious reference to God as in control of all this.
The boy with whom Mohamed searches the bins is also presented in a much less shocking way in French; here the only information given is about his inadequate clothing, whereas the English also goes into sickening detail about the unhealthy state of his skin: From examples like these, we can see that, where the description is concerned with signs of poverty and sickness, it is Bowles who uses the more specific detail while Ben Jelloun is less explicit.
Thus Bowles, in his novel The Sheltering Sky , frequently incorporates into his text words and phrases in Arabic, French and Spanish, without feeling the need to provide any gloss or explanation: Ben Jelloun, on the other hand, seems to take special pains to provide French translations even for what are quite culture-specific Moroccan references. Appendices References Ballard, M. Google Scholar. Google Scholar Meta , 52 3 , — Hector Servadac - Hector Servadac , New York: Munro, trans.?
It does not suit me to give you my place. The only words, almost incomprehensible, which he had yet uttered were these:. Hector Servadac , London: Sampson Low, trans. To the Sun? Les Indes noires - If Mr. James Starr will present himself to-morrow at the Aberfoyle Coalmines, Dochart Pit, Yarow [sic] Well, he will receive a communication of an interesting nature. Starr, Engineer, 30, Canongate, Edinburgh. James Starr will come to-morrow to the Aberfoyle coal-mines, Dochart pit, Yarrow shaft, a communication of an interesting nature will be made to him. Un Capitaine de quinze ans - This vessel, of four hundred tons, fitted out at San Francisco for whale-fishing in the southern seas, belonged to James W.
Weldon, a rich Californian ship-owner, who had for several years entrusted the command of it to Captain Hull. She was a schooner, the property of James W. Weldon, a wealthy Californian ship-owner who had fitted her out at San Francisco, expressly for the whale-fisheries in the southern seas. The splendid constellation of the Southern Hemisphere shone with exquisite brilliancy. The Bounty lay motionless, with drooping sails, as the night wore on; and the moon, turning pale at the approach of dawn, filled the air with dim and uncertain light.
Virginia Champlin [Grace Virginia Lord]. Frewer - reprint: abridged and edited by I. James Cotterell. Agnes D. Kingston - reprint: New York: Vincent Parke vol. These proud words may justly be applied to the Himalayan chain, whose heights no man can measure with any mathematical precision. La Jangada - The person who held in his hand the document, of which this medley of letters composed the last paragraph, remained for some moments in a thoughtful attitude after contemplating it attentively.
Gordon - reprint: New York: Vincent Parke vol. The man who held in his hand the document of which this strange assemblage of letters formed the concluding paragraph, remained some moments lost in thought. It is some four hundred and twenty leagues from Belem, and about ten miles from the embouchure of the Rio Negro. Le Rayon vert, suivi de Dix heures de chasse - Such were the appellations that were heard successively in the magnificent hall of Helensburgh.
Mary de Hautville - reprints: abridged and edited by I. One after another these names re-echoed through the hall of Helensburgh; it was the way the brothers Sam and Sib had of summoning their housekeeper. Evans, see listing below. For cash! Horne, abridged and Chicago: Sequoyah Books, ; abridged and edited by I. The Top Hane square, in Constantinople, usually the scene of bustling, busy crowds, was now silent, dismal and deserted. Ma demande vous semble surprendre.
My request seems to surprise you, but you will excuse me if I say that I am at a loss to understand why it should appear extraordinary. I am twenty-six years old, my name is Cyprien Mere. I am a mining engineer, having graduated from the Polytechnic School, second in my class; my family is honorable, and respected, if they are not rich.
My request seems to surprise you. Perhaps you will forgive me if I have some difficulty understanding why it appears so strange. I am twenty-six years old; my name is Victor Cyprien; I am a mining engineer, and left the Polytechnic as second on the list. My family is honest and respected, if it is not rich.
Stephen Gray. My request seems to have taken you by surprise. I am twenty-six. I am a mining engineer and I left the Polytechnic second in my year. Mathias Sandorf - Mathias Sandorf , New York:: Munro, trans. Hanna - reprint: London, Sampson Low, Trieste, the capital of Illyria, consists of two towns of widely dissimilar aspect. One of them—Theresienstadt—is modern and well-to-do, and squarely built along the shore of the bay from which the land it occupies has been reclaimed; the other is old, and poor, and irregular, straggling from the Corso up the slopes of the Karst, whose summit is crowned by the picturesque citadel.
There is probably neither in Europe nor anywhere else a scholar whose face is more universally known than that of Dr. Schwaryencrona, of Stockholm. His portrait appears on the millions of bottles with green seals, which are sent to the confines of the globe. In all probability there had never been, either in Europe or anywhere else, a scientist whose appearance was better known than that of Dr.
Schwaryencrona; his portrait, reproduced by the vendors below his trade-mark on millions of bottles with their green seals, accompanied the bottles even to the ends of the earth. Robur the Conqueror , New York: Munro, trans.? Chicago: M. Donohue, n. Amsterdam: Fredonia, The sound of two pistol shots was heard.
A cow crossing a field fifty paces distant received a bullet in the spine. The cow was an innocent victim. Like spectators at a riot she had fared worse than the combatants.
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New York: Vincent Parke vol. The pistol-shots were almost simultaneous. A cow peacefully grazing fifty yards away received one of the bullets in her back.
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She had nothing to do with the quarrel all the same. Un Billet de Loterie, suivi de Frritt-Flacc - Ticket No. Laura E. This shrieking squall bends down the trees of the Volsinian coast, and hurries on, flinging itself against the sides of the mountains of Crimma. The roaring gale bends the trees of the Volsinian coast and smashes against the slopes of the mountains of Crimma. Evans - reprinted in Yesterday and Tomorrow , see below.
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Its roaring force is bending the trees on the adjacent hills and driving on to break against the slopes of the mountains of Crimma. Potter], trans. Alberto Manguel. The wind is blowing. The rain is pouring down. The roaring storm bends the trees on the Volsinian shore and crashes against the flanks of the Crimma Mountains.
Le Chemin de France, suivi de Gil Braltar - Flight to France , London: Sampson Low, trans.? My name is Natalis Delpierre. I was born in , at Grattepanche, a village in Picardy. My father was a farm labourer. My mother did her best to help him. Evans - reprint in Yesterday and Tomorrow , see below. There were seven or eight hundred of them at least. Of medium height, but strong, supple, framed to make prodigious bounds, they gamboled in the last rays of the sun, now setting over the mountains which formed serried ridges westward of the roadstead.
Nord contre Sud - NOTE: although Part I of this edition is a different translation, Part II appears to be identical—except for occasional spellings and a few differences in punctuation—to the Sampson Low translation. By this annexation, the territory of the United States was increased sixty-seven thousand square miles, but the star of Florida glitters with only a secondary light in the constellation of thirty-eight stars that adorns the flag of the United States. Burbank and Alice reached the bank of Marine Creek. By the annexation the area of the republic was increased by some 67, square miles.
But the star of Florida shines with second-rate brilliancy in that constellation of thirty-eight which spangle the banner of the United States of America. Burbank and Alice reached the bank of Marino Creek. Deux ans de vacances - On the night of the 9th of March, , the heavy, lowering clouds, which seemed almost a part of the sea, completely concealed from view even objects that were but a few yards off, as a small vessel with furled sails flew along over the fierce and angry waves, upon which occasional flashes of lightning cast a lurid glare.
Adrift in the Pacific , London: Sampson Low, trans.? The sea and sky were as one, and the eye could pierce but a few fathoms into the gloom. Through the raging sea, over which the waves broke with a livid light, a little ship was driving under almost bare poles. Olga Marx. On the night of March 9, , the clouds scudded so low they seemed to be lying on the ocean.
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The horizon had narrowed to a few yards. The one-hundred-ton schooner Sloughie bounced about in a howling storm. Sans dessus dessous - Maston, you consider that a woman can do nothing for the advance of the mathematical or experimental sciences? Topsy-Turvy , New York: Ogilvie, trans.? New York: Ace, Maston, you pretend that a woman has never been able to make mathematical or experimental-science progress? Famille-sans-nom - Allons, enfants, fouillez-vous!
Caesar Cascabel , New York: Cassell, trans. Estoclet - reprint: Amsterdam: Fredonia, Come, children, search your pockets! And she drew out of her pocket a square-cut piece of greenish paper, all crumpled and greasy. Cesar Cascabel , London: Sampson Low, trans.? Now then, children, look about you! Mistress Branican - Mistress Branican , New York: Cassell, trans. When you part with friends on the threshold of a long journey, there are at least two chances of your never seeing them again; those whom you leave behind may not be there on your return, and you, who go away, may never come back.
Such calculations, however, were far away from the thoughts of the sailors who were preparing to get under sail on board the Franklin , on the morning of the 15th of March, in the year Mistress Branican , London: Sampson Low, trans.? There are two chances of never again seeing the friends we part with when starting on a long voyage; those we leave may not be here on our return, and those who go may never come back.
But little heed of these eventualities were taken by the sailors who were preparing for the departure on board the Franklin in the morning of the 15th of March, Ce serait une erreur. This story is not fantastic; it is merely romantic. Are we to conclude that it is not true, its unreality being granted?
That would be a mistake. We live in times when everything can happen—we might almost say everything has happened. If our story does not seem to be true to-day, it may seem so to-morrow, thanks to the resources of science, which are the wealth of the future. Claudius Bombarnac - Book; , London: Sampson Low, trans.? Such is the address of the telegram I found on the 13th of May when I arrived at Tiflis. There he will take the train by the direct Grand Transasiatic between the European frontier and the capital of the Celestial Empire.
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Foundling Mick , London: Sampson Low, trans.? Ireland, which has an area of 31, square miles, or 20,, acres, formerly formed part of the insular tract of land now called the United Kingdom. Captain Antifer , London: Sampson Low, trans.? It is September 9th, The sun is rising, or to speak more exactly, its light is illuminating the lower clouds in the east, for its disk is still below the horizon. When a journey begins badly it rarely ends well. At least that ought to have been the opinion of the four instrumentalists whose instruments lay on the ground, the carriage in which they were riding having suddenly upset against a mound by the side of the road.
Face au drapeau - Facing the Flag , New York: Neely, trans.? For the Flag , London: Sampson Low, trans. Cashel Hoey - reprint: abridged and edited by I. Clovis Dardentor - Clovis Dardentor , London: Sampson Low, trans.? When they had both left the train at the Cette railway station—the train from Paris to the Mediterranean—Marcel Lornans, addressing Jean Taconnat, said to him:.
Le Sphinx des glaces - Cashel Hoey - reprint: Boston: Gregg, No more appropriate scene for the wonderful and terrible adventures which I am about to relate could be imagined than the Desolation Islands, so called, in , by Captain Cook. I am a Connecticut naturalist possessed of a small independent fortune. In the year I was engaged in research work among the islands of the far southern ocean. Basil Ashmore. I assert, however, that the name Desolation Islands, given them in by Captain Cook, is the only suitable name for this group of islets in the midst of the vast storm-swept Southern Seas.
Stanford Luce. Miguel, who was seeking to intervene between the two fiery discussants. A stranger arriving in the chief city of Illinois on the morning of the 3rd of April, , would have had good reason for considering himself the most fortunate of travellers. His notebook that day would have had entries enough to yield copy for many sensational articles. Seconde patrie - This is the first spring month in the Southern zone. The winter in this nineteenth degree of latitude between the Equator and the tropic of Capricorn had not been very severe.
The inhabitants of New Switzerland would soon be able to resume their wonted labours. It was almost impossible to distinguish sky from sea. From the sky, laden with clouds low and heavy, deformed and tattered, lightning flashed every now and then, followed by muffled rolls of thunder.
At these flashes the horizon lit up for a moment and showed deserted and melancholy. Evans - reprint: New York: Ace, Les Histoires de Jean-Marie Cabidoulin - Bourses de voyages - Horne, trans.? If I speak of myself in this story, it is because I have been deeply involved in its startling events, events doubtless among the most extraordinary which this twentieth century will witness.
Cranstoun Metcalfe - reprint: abridged and edited by I. It is formed of two distinct chains: the Cumberland Mountains on the west, and the Blue Ridge on the east. Un Drame en Livonie - That man was alone in the night, running like a wolf between the masses of ice piled up by the cold of a long winter. His trousers were of double thickness, his cafetan or cowskin jacket, his cap with its ear-flaps, protected him but imperfectly from the attacks of the bitter wind. Invasion of the Sea , Wesleyan UP, trans.
Le Phare du bout du monde - Cranstoun Metcalfe - reprint: Amsterdam: Fredonia, The sun was setting behind the hills which bounded the view to the west. The weather was fine. Summy Skim. Package Holiday and End of the Journey [2 vols. The future would tell, but certainly relations were strained between the Administrator General and those he administered.
There is no reason for hiding from the reader that the town in which this singular story commences is situated in Virginia, United States of America. With his permission, we will call this town Whaston, and we will place it in the east, on the right bank of the Potomac; but we deem it useless to specify the exact whereabouts of Whaston, which does not appear even on the best maps. The town in which this strange story begins is situated in Virginia, U.
Le Pilote du Danube - The windows opened on to the Danube, where the pleasant little town of Sigmaringen almost dominates its source. Its local name was the guanaco. A few minutes sufficed to bring him to Liberia. Magellania , New York: Welcome Rain, trans. Benjamin Fry. It was a graceful animal, with a long neck, elegant curvature, rounded rump, and nervous tapering legs with a tawny, white-speckled red coat, and a short, tufted, thick-haired tail.
In the countryside it was called the guanaco , or guanaque. Le Secret de Wilhelm Storitz - Besides, the country is magnificent, and this district in Lower Hungary is just the thing to interest an engineer. Were it only from that point of view, you would not regret making the journey.
Thus ended the letter which I received from my brother on 4th April, Little though they seem to think of it, the people of this twenty-ninth century live continually in a fairyland. Surfeited as they are with marvels, they are indifferent in the presence of each new marvel. The Zartog Sofr-Al-Sr—that is, the learned Doctor Sofr, youngest member of the hundred-and-first generation of his lineage—was making his way at a comfortable pace along the chief street in Basidra, capital of the Hars-Iten-Schu, the Empire as we would call it of the Four Seas.
One day—towards the end of September, a long time ago—a luxurious carriage drew up before the office of the Vice-Admiral Commanding the Port of Toulon. Will you permit me to neglect all the duties of a Director of the Academy of Amiens presiding at a public session, by replacing the usual lecture by an account of an adventure which happened to myself? That is the rain falling in torrents. The men of the twenty-ninth century live in a perpetual fairyland, though they do not seem to realise it. Bored with wonders, they are cold towards everything that progress brings them every day.
There were about thirty of us children in Kalfermatt School, a score of boys between six and twelve years old, and ten girls between four and nine. Brian Taves and Stephen Michaluk Jr. Evelyn Copeland. Their servants were the cook, Rata, and the maid, Ratane. Back to Home. Science Fiction Studies. Hoyt During the civil war in the United States a new and very influential club was established in the city of Baltimore. This version begins as follows: The year was marked by a series of strange events revolving around a mysterious and puzzling phenomenon that is doubtless still vivid in the mind of the public.
This version begins as follows: The year was made notable by a series of bizarre events, a chain of mysterious phenomena which have never been explained, that I am sure no one has forgotten. Au contraire! Nous descendons! Jetez du lest! On the contrary. It is my comet! Starr, 30 Canongate, Edinburgh: If Mr.
I am listening.
The contending adversaries were untouched. Neither of the adversaries was hit. It is the wind, let loose. It is the rain, falling in torrents. The wind is on the rampage. The rain is falling in torrents. That is the wind getting up. Estoclet When you part with friends on the threshold of a long journey, there are at least two chances of your never seeing them again; those whom you leave behind may not be there on your return, and you, who go away, may never come back.
Evans That man was alone in the night, running like a wolf between the masses of ice piled up by the cold of a long winter.