A Psychology Journal: Classical Conditioning
It is the process of associating, and consequently, providing meaning to a neutral stimulus with another meaningful stimulus, in order to elicit similar response and the basic processes that occur in classical conditioning include acquisition, stimulus generalisation, stimulus discrimination, and extinction. It is, in fact, no doubt that Pavlovian theory is also known as the theory of classical conditioning has an impeccable illustration of associative learning, this paper attempts to depict its application to learning motor skills as well as to critically evaluate its influence in sports.
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Moxley, S. Schema: the variability of practice hypothesis. Journal of Motor Behaviour. Newell, K. Constraints on the development of coordination. Whiting Eds. Motor development in children. Aspects of coordination and control pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. Rescorla, R. Predictability and number of pairings in Pavlovian fear conditioning. Psychonomic Science, 4, Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. Psychological Review, 74, 71— Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is.
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Classical conditioning of model systems: A behavioral review
Psychological Bulletin, 95 3 , — Schmidt, R. A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Their work offers promise that the underlying mechanisms for automatic transfer are applicable to human settings that involve stimuli more approximate to advertising applications. Empirical work on the classical conditioning paradigm in a marketing context is in the pioneering stage. Gorn s offered support for the usefulness of the classical conditioning paradigm. He reported two experiments testing whether the framework could account for the impact of music, a background feature, on product choice.
Subjects saw a slide of either a blue or beige pen and listened to one minute of either pleasant or unpleasant music. They were asked to select a pen "for their help. Those subjects who heard the pleasant music were more likely to select the color of pen they saw on the slide, while those listening to the unpleasant music selected more often the color they had not seen.
In the second experiment, Gorn manipulated the decision-making context and argued that classical conditioning accounted for choice behavior when the decision-making conteXt was uninvolved. Allen and Madden forthcoming questioned whether Gorn's findings would be replicated with a stronger experimental design. Allen and Madden forthcoming designed an experiment to be administered on an individual basis in which pleasant or unpleasant humor was paired with a color slide of a pen green or black.
They did not find support for the classical conditioning paradigm. In both the pleasant and unpleasant treatment groups, a majority ended up selecting the color viewed on the screen. Allen and Madden forthcoming extended the theoretical inquiry by designing a clever buy-back procedure to assess whether a conditioned response, affect, would manifest itself in a decision that engaged more active cognitive processes.
A statistically significant difference appeared between the pleasant and unpleasant humor groups with a greater percentage of pens sold back by those who listened to the unpleasant humor. They explained the results by suggesting that humor created feeling states in which those in pleasant humor condition were more likely to generate positive thoughts.
Thus, they were more resistant to the buy-back attempt. Although no direct measures of the thought processes were taken, Allen and Madden forthcoming interpreted their finding as congruent with the "mood" literature cf. Therefore, the two empirical efforts in a marketing context, both involving simultaneous conditioning, provide contradictory indications for the applicability of the classical conditioning framework to marketing phenomenon. Gorn's work with music offered strong support. However, Allen and Madden forthcoming reported none. In fact, the results from their buy-back measure, which may have produced a mood that biased cognitive activity, advised that no automatic responses occurred as expected under the classical conditioning paradigm.
The current research to be described consisted of another effort to witness conditioning effects. Both forward or traditioning conditioning and simultaneous conditioning were tested. An advantage of the present study was the use of young children as subjects.
A major problem for consumer researchers to consider is subject awareness Allen and Madden, forthcoming. Because young children are less likely to intuit a researcher's purpose, concern for this potential demand artifact is minimized. An experiment was designed to assess whether a favorable source paired with a product would directly affect children's product preferences. Two temporal arrangements between the CS and US were tested. First, it was hypothesized that children who saw a picture of a pencil together with a picture of a favorable character simultaneous conditioning would not evidence choice preference based on the simultaneous pairing.
The second hypothesis predicted, however, that children who first saw a picture of the pencil followed by a picture of the favorable character forward conditioning would be more likely to select the pencil "advertised". The rationale for the two hypotheses is as follows. The research literature grounding the first hypothesis is contradictory in terms of anticipated results.
In general, laboratory work with animals suggests that simultaneous conditioning does not provide optimal conditioning Smith, Coleman, and Gormezano Moore and Cormezano asserted that instances of simultaneous conditioning that have appeared have failed to include proper controls or have employed stimuli of too long a duration. In terms of human conditioning, Gorn's work indicated success. As discussed, Allen and Madden forthcoming did not find effects.
Thus, the first hypothesis is stated in a fashion consistent with the work based on animals and with Allen and Madden's forthcoming failure to find an effect with people. In terms of the second hypothesis, effects from the forward conditions were predicted in accord with the literature based on animal literature.
None of the human studies have included forward conditions, although Staats and Staats , , found effects from forward delay conditioning of adult subjects. As discussed in the introduction to this paper, Rescorla argued for a "predictiveness" view rather than just a temporally-based one. It is generally agreed that both views dictate the use of a control group to ascertain true conditioning. It should be noted that the issue of what constitutes an appropriate control has received considerable attention. An unpaired control group procedure assumes randomized sequencing of CS alone and US alone presentations at intervals larger than that of the conditioning group s.
Rescorla argued for a truly random control procedure in which CS and US were independently programmed so that the US would have equal probabilities of occurring in the presence or absence of the CS. Gormezano and Kehoe pointed out both empirical and theoretical difficulties with the truly random control procedure. In recognition of the problems Holland and Rescorla , the more traditional, unpaired control has once again become favored. Procedures will be described in the next section of this paper that incorporated an unpaired control for the current study.
Subject awareness, or lack thereof, is a major consideration for the researcher. As discussed in the introduction of this paper, one advantage of working with preschoolers is that they are probably less likely to determine the researcher's purpose as compared to college students who may become "sophisticated" in their participation in projects.
A 3 x 2 factor design was created to test for evidence of classical conditioning effects on children. Three levels of the first factor, temporal condition, were as follows: 1 simultaneous conditioning, CS and US presented together, 2 forward conditioning, CS presented sequentially followed by US, and 3 unpaired control, CS and US presented alone, randomly and in a long interval in relation to each other.
The reader will notice that the forward conditioning reflects the traditional view of temporal spacing between the CS and US. The second factor consisted of two levels of color of the product: 1 an orange pencil and 2 a yellow pencil. This factor was included to mock Gorn's and Allen and Madden's forthcoming behavioral measure of a pen selection. Therefore, the six groups were as follows: 1 simultaneous conditioning - orange pencil, 2 simultaneous conditioning - yellow pencil, 3 forward conditioning - orange pencil, 4 forward conditioning yellow pencil, 5 unpaired control - orange pencil, and 6 unpaired control - yellow pencil.
Arrangements were made with the directors of a daycare center and a preschool in two adjacent suburban communities of a large, midwestern city. Eighty-four subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to the conditions. Boys and girls were approximately equal 43 boys, 41 females , and they were mostly white 77 white, 7 black. The subjects could best be described as coming from suburban, middle to upper-middle income homes surrounding an outerbelt highway of the city. Brightly colored pencils were selected as the CS. Fifteen preschoolers, from similar socioeconomic backgrounds as the test children, compared four colors black, blue, yellow, and orange in side-by-side tests of actual pencils the four colors were narrowed down from an original pool of eight.
Orange and yellow were decided from the pairwise comparisons on an equal preference basis The source for pairing was also pretested. The same fifteen children rated nine characters on a four-point interval felt board illustrating smiling to frowning faces. The source rating task was systematically rotated with the pencil comparisons.
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Indeed, the ceiling score indicated strong popularity. Pictures of Smurf and the pencils color photocopies of the actual pencils were transferred to individual 9" by 12" laminated posters. Multiple copies were made for ease of administration of the three exposures included for each child in each condition.
Individuals were randomly assigned to one of the six treatment groups.
Classical Conditioning of Human Behavior Research Papers - ihosaxupoxyd.tk
Each child saw the poster of Smurf associated with a poster of either an orange or yellow pencil. As described earlier, the three temporal arrangements of the associations were either simultaneous, forward, or unpaired control. Three exposures were included to strengthen the manipulation and were consistent with previous efforts in psychology McSweeney and Bierly All interviews were conducted on an individual basis. Children were told that they would be asked to answer some questions and play a game with the experimenter.
In fact, the three exposures to the CS and US were buried in another study about children's understanding of advertising. At intervals appropriate to the conditioning treatment, children were asked to look at some pictures the experimenter "brought along. The three exposures were approximately equally spaced during the 20 minute session. Children in the forward conditions saw the poster of the pencil immediately followed by the poster of Smurf, once again. Children in the unpaired control condition saw one poster at six different breaks approximately equal in the 20 minute session.
The six posters used in the unpaired control conditions were shuffled before each child entered the test room.
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The length of exposures, five seconds, was held constant across all conditions. Smiling to frowning faces were illustrated on a felt board which had also been used for the pretest.
The Persistence and Extinction of Conditioning
Each child received at least two practice trials. The experimenter asked the child to "try the boards out" by indicating answers about such other familiar characters as Santa Claus, Strawberry Shortcake, Luke Skywalker, Pie Man, and so forth. The experimenter asked about Smurf after she judged the child to be proficient in the use of the boards. The key measure for the study was taken at the very end of the session.
The experimenter said that she wanted to thank the child for being in the study. She showed the child a yellow and orange pencil held side by side and asked the child to select one. Pretests of the procedures indicated the importance of presenting the pencils precisely side by side. During one pretest session, the experimenter asked the child why he picked a particular color. Re responded, "because it is longer.
8.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning
A buy-back procedure was modified from Allen and Madden forthcoming. But, would you like to trade me for a sticker? This "buy back" procedure was included with the rationale provided by Allen and Madden forthcoming. Whereas the choice between an orange and yellow pencil that were equally desirable as based on a pretest would probably not stimulate much cognitive activity, a decision to trade for a sticker would probably evoke some thought.
Teachers were asked not to discuss the study with the children but to listen for comments. Few comments were relayed; however, teachers reported such as the following, wit's fun to talk to the lady; you get to play a game, etc. The data were analyzed in a fashion consistent with prior work in marketing Gorn ; Allen and Madden forthcoming.
As can be seen in Tables 1 and 2, the treatments did not yield statistical differences in color selection. The results depicted in Table 1 suggest that there may have been an overall color preference for orange. Of the 14 control subjects who saw yellow, 10 selected the orange pencil. However, only 6 out of the 14 orange control group picked orange. More importantly, Table 2 illustrates the data in Gorn's fashion. The key concern is not what color was picked per se, but whether the source influenced the choice based on the color paired.
Table 2 displays a cross-tabulation of the pencil selected "advertised" versus "nonadvertised" by condition. Thus, the first hypothesis received support. Children who viewed Smurf simultaneously with the pencil evidenced no choice preference based on the pairing simultaneous condition. The second hypothesis did not receive support, however. It will be remembered that children who first saw the pencil then viewed Smurf were predicted to show choice preference for the "advertised" pencil forward condition.
The data offered no support. Therefore, the form of conditioning, simultaneous or forward, provided for no statistical differences from the control group who saw Smurf and the pencil in an unpaired fashion. In short, no support was indicated for automatic behavioral responses to a favorable character, Smurf, being associated with a product. This finding is consistent with Allen and Madden's forthcoming failure to establish a simultaneous conditioning effect with adult females.
It is inconsistent with Gorn's results in favor of the simultaneous conditioning hypothesis. Allen and Madden's forthcoming buy back procedure was mocked in that children were provided the opportunity to trade the pencil selected for a sticker. This measure was included to gauge whether Smurf would create a positive feeling state that would bias the cognitive evaluation of the pencils. In the procedure section of this paper, it was argued that a trade for a popular item would be more likely to stimulate thought as compared to a choice between two pencils that varied only in color.
The percentages who traded the sticker for a pencil were compared among the simultaneous, forward, and control groups. The following trades were made: simultaneous group, Nearly the same percentage of the simultaneous Therefore, the treatments yielded one statistical difference in the children's willingness to trade.