Speak & Read Mandarin Chinese The Right Way! eBook 1
In this study, Mandarin-English bilingual speaking parents and their preschool-aged children were recruited to serve as participants. All participants were residents of Southern California and were proficient in both languages. Because a within-subjects design was used — the same subjects participated in both languages of interest — culture was kept constant.
Each parent spoke in both English and Mandarin, using each language for half of the experimental session, providing equivalent control groups for each language, which was not possible in a cross-national design. All recruited parents lived and worked in the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley areas, and all children were enrolled in English speaking daycare or preschool programs. As we were also interested in cultural beliefs and practices, a survey was also given to assess the attitudes of bilingual, bicultural parents on math and education. Twenty-two Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual parent-child dyads volunteered to participate in this study.
The participants consisted of 11 male and 11 female preschool-aged children mean age The mean age of parent participants was At the time of testing, none of the children had yet to enter kindergarten. Parents and children were recruited from preschools, childcare centers, and Chinese language schools in Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley area communities. Parents also indicated the amount of time spent using each of their languages per day; with whom they used their languages to communicate; and during which activities they used each language.
Frequency and type of language mixing was also described, as well as their preferences in language usage. All parents reported English as their second language. All parents regularly spoke English outside the home. Overall parents had a high level of education. Two parents did not report their attained level of education. Fourteen of the parents were natives of Taiwan, R.
On average, parents had lived in the United States for Participants were tested in the laboratory, at their preschool or childcare center, or in their homes. All parents provided written consent prior to participating in the study with their children. Mandarin-English speaking bilingual researchers conducted this experiment. Equal numbers of subject pairs were randomly assigned to a specific order of stimuli and order of languages Mandarin first, or English first prior to participation. Researchers conversed with the subject pair in the assigned first language during the informed consent process and throughout the beginning of the session.
The entire session was recorded on a digital camcorder. Parents and children first participated in the picture books task. Forty pages of full-color photographs depicting familiar objects were chosen as the stimuli for this experiment. Each stimulus appeared as an approximately 4 in by 5 in Objects were chosen to be familiar to both parents and children e. Twenty of these photographs were selected because they depicted good examples of cardinal number situations easily quantifiable sets of objects, e.
The remaining 20 photographs were selected because they depicted good examples of settings where an English classifier could be used when labeling quantities. Classifiers are nouns that indicate a unit of measurement e. Fluent bilingual speakers confirmed that these 20 objects typically co-occurred with a classifying noun in both Mandarin and English. Each photograph included a different number of objects, ranging from one to ten. Four instances of each quantity two each in cardinal stimuli, and two each in classifier stimuli appeared in the set of 40 stimuli i.
In order to minimize demand characteristics, stimuli were chosen such that they depicted several dimensions including number so that parents could discuss other attributes than number if they chose, such as color and shape. The 40 pages were counterbalanced for order and divided into two books of 20 pages each one book for each language for each subject. This process was repeated three additional times to create a total of four counterbalanced orders.
Across the four orders, each photograph appeared an equal number of times in the first half and the second half, and never appeared more than once in each counterbalanced order. Orders were created to allow opportunities to use English classifiers for half of each set of pictures. Parents were handed the first book and were asked to discuss the pictures in the assigned first language with their child as if they were looking at a picture book at home.
Parents were requested to avoid code mixing and parents were informed that they would be asked to switch languages later in the study. Participants were not timed and were allowed to talk about the pictures for as long as they chose to. After viewing and discussing the first set of 20 pictures in the assigned first language, children were given a 5-min play break during which they played with toys such as Play-Doh or stuffed animals. Parents were asked to continue playing with their child while using the first assigned language as if they were doing so at home. Approximately 2 min and 30 s into the play period, parents were asked to switch into the second assigned language, and to continue playing while speaking the second language.
This break allowed children a rest period from looking at the photographs and was further used as parent speech samples in each language, to assess parental fluency. Finally, the break served as a transition period in which subjects became accustomed to speaking and listening in the second assigned language. Parents and children were next presented with the second book. Parents were asked to discuss the pictures in the second assigned language with their child, as would at home.
- How Bilingual Parents Talk to Children About Number in Mandarin and English.
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As before, participants were not timed and were allowed to talk about the pictures for as long as they chose to. Four set sizes 10, 8, 7, and 6 were used. Close quantities 6 and 7; 8 and 10 were chosen to examine whether each child could correctly count each set of objects. In the first assigned language, each child was asked to count two rows of objects aloud one at a time.
That is, after counting one row of objects, the child was next asked to count a second row of objects. Next, in the second assigned language, each child was asked to count the remaining two rows of objects aloud one at a time. During the task, children typically had one attempt to count each row of objects, but children were asked to switch languages if they began to count in the wrong language and were asked to restart if their first counting attempt was inaudible.
The experimenter placed 12 plastic bears of the same color in front of the child, and asked the child, in the first assigned language, to place three bears onto a paper plate. The experimenter then took the bears off of the plate, and asked the child, again in the first assigned language, to place five bears onto the plate. The experimenter then repeated this process in the other language, first asking the child to place five bears onto the plate, and then three bears.
In the comparison task, 4. Each card displayed four, five, seven, or nine star-shaped or smiley face stickers. Two cards were placed side by side in front of the child, one card with four stickers and one card with five stickers. Speaking in the first assigned language, the experimenter asked the child to point to the card with four stickers on it.
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The experimenter then removed the cards and presented two new cards — one card with seven stickers and card with nine stickers. Speaking in the first assigned language, the experimenter asked the child to point to the card with seven stickers. After the child pointed, these cards were removed. The cards with four and five stickers were placed back in front of the child, in the opposite positions that they were previously placed e. Speaking in the second assigned language, the experimenter asked the child to point to the card with five stickers on it.
This process was repeated in the second assigned language with the cards with seven and nine stickers on them, and the child was asked to point to the card with nine stickers on it. Parents also indicated the primary language they used with their child at home, and the percentage of time this language was used. They also reported the primary language the child used at home, and the percentage of time the language was used. Finally, parents were asked their opinions on academic achievement and extracurricular activities.
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The child language and education survey used in this study is presented in its entirety in the Supplementary Material. Recordings of the experimental sessions were examined for number-related speech. Number utterances were also coded for the following six types of utterances. Cardinal utterances included specific references to quantity when describing an object e. Counting routines occurred when the child or parent counted objects without specifically labeling them e.
These sequences typically occurred after parents asked counting questions , which were also identified and recorded. Counting questions occurred when the parent asked the child to count a set of objects or to otherwise indicate a quantity e. Pronoun usage, or the use of a number term without a direct cardinal referent in cases where the number term could be grammatically replaced with a noun e. Idiomatic usage of number terms, particularly the number one yi1 , which occurs regularly in Mandarin, was also identified and categorized. Other documented categories of number speech that occurred rarely during this experiment included references to money e.
Across both languages, parents talked about number an average of When speaking Mandarin, parents made an average of When speaking English, the same parents made an average of There did not appear to be any particular stimuli that generally elicited significantly greater or fewer number utterances than other stimuli in either or both languages. A paired-samples t -test did not reveal significant differences in the amount of overall parental number speech between languages.
Parents used number terms in several ways in their interactions with their children. Pronominal number utterances were coded separately from non-pronoun usages of number, which were defined as the use of a number term that could not be grammatically replaced with another noun. Pronoun and non-pronoun forms of number statements were examined separately because they express slightly different meanings.
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In these phrases, the number term does not serve as an explicit quantifier. Pronoun number utterances made up Between Mandarin and English, the amount of non-pronoun number speech differed substantially.
Figure 1 presents the average number of pronoun and non-pronoun number utterances spoken by parents in both languages. Mean number of pronoun and non-pronoun number utterances when parents spoke in Mandarin and English.
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Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. Idiomatic phrases containing number were significantly more common in Mandarin, and parents tended to use cardinal numbers and ask counting questions more frequently in Mandarin as well. Answer keys for the exercises are provided, and an ''Extend Your Vocabulary'' section in each chapter helps you to remember and understand more words that you'd think possible.
Toon meer Toon minder. Recensie s A fantastic place to start It's a nice touch that gives you some background knowledge about Chinese culture. Indeed, I was impressed to see Chinese poems from the Tang dynasty appearing at the end of most chapters! Buonanno, Mandarin learner One other thing I really enjoyed about this book is the inclusion of traditional Chinese poetry. Before, I never dared approach Chinese poetry, but this book gives me the understanding to read great poems without needing a specialty text.
She didn't just teach the language-but also Chinese culture and history. Her new book reflects her warmth and breadth of teaching. As her pupil, I found her passion and determination inspiring. Learning with Yi gave me the feeling of being in China all over again. Each chapter included vocabulary, dialogues and culture information. This is a book written by an experienced Chinese instructor. Lees de eerste pagina's. Reviews Schrijf een review. There are currently books available at level 1 unique characters and at level 2 unique characters. I have reviewed all the level 1 books here. In general, this is a great resource for learners.
If you know less than the required amount of characters, this is still good practice; you can rest assured that most characters and words you learn here are actually useful. However, these books also work for intermediate students to increase the reading volume and pick up a few extra words and added character familiarity.
Each news article comes with text and audio. This is a great resource for large volumes of reading and listening practice, combined with news updates. Note: Since publishing this article, this service now requires a subscription. This is a reading app that contains a number of lessons for beginner, intermediate and advanced students. Apart from the reading material, there is also recorded not synthesised audio. The app also has a built-in dictionary.
The combination of these features makes it a valuable asset in your reading-practice arsenal. Of course, you could also use it for listening practice and read the text only after you have tried understanding the spoken audio. This is another popular series of graded readers that have been around for a while now. While they offer a broader range of books on more levels, I think the stories are somewhat weaker than Mandarin Companion.
The levels are almost the same as for Mandarin Companion, starting at , then increasing to and, finally, to unique characters.
Speak & Read Mandarin Chinese The Right Way! eBook 1
This means that you can use some of it for reading practice instead. All lessons are constructed with language students in mind, include vocabulary lists, grammar explanations and much more. By only reading the actual dialogues, you can also avoid most of the English, which is a problem for the audio lessons. As usual, you can find more over at Hacking Chinese Resources. Or just click here. Do you know of a beginner-friendly reading resource that beats the ones I have listed here?