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Plugin ExtractEdges creates one new view. Plugin ExtractElements creates one new view. Plugin FaultZone convert all the embedded lines of an existing surfacic mesh to flat quadrangles. Embedded lines must have been added to the surface via the command Line In Surface. The surface must be meshed with quadratic incomplete elements. Set a value different to zero can be helpful to check the connectivity. All physicals containing embedded lines are replaced by physicals containing the corresponding joint elements.
The result is to be interpolated in a sufficiently fine mesh: Plugin FieldFromAmplitudePhase generates one new view. Plugin Gradient creates one new view.
- Back to the Future timeline;
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Plugin HarmonicToTime creates one new view. Plugin HomologyComputation computes representative chains of basis elements of relative homology and cohomology spaces. Define physical groups in order to specify the computation domain and the relative subdomain. Otherwise the whole mesh is the domain and the relative subdomain is empty. Plugin HomologyComputation creates new views, one for each basis element.
The resulting basis chains of desired dimension together with the mesh are saved to the given file. Plugin HomologyPostProcessing operates on representative basis chains of homology and cohomology spaces. Integer matrix of the transformation. Co chains of a co homology space basis to be transformed. Results a new co chain basis that is an integer cobination of the given basis. Make basis representations of a homology space and a cohomology space compatible: Chains of a homology space basis.
Cochains of a cohomology space basis. Results a new basis for the homology space such that the incidence matrix of the new basis and the basis of the cohomology space is the identity matrix. Trace the resulting co chains to the given physical groups.
Project the resulting co chains to the complement of the given physical groups.
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Post-processing view name prefix for the results. Apply boundary operator to the resulting chains. Plugin Integrate creates one new view. Vortices are well represented by regions where Lambda 2 is negative. Plugin Lambda2 creates one new view. Plugin LongituteLatitude is executed in place. Plugin MakeSimplex is executed in-place.
Otherwise the plugin creates a tensor view. Plugin MathEval creates one new view. Plugin MinMax creates two new views. If an expression is empty, the corresponding component in the view is not modified. The expressions can contain: Plugin ModifyComponents is executed in-place. Plugin ModulusPhase is executed in-place. Plugin NearToFarField computes the far field pattern from the near electric E and magnetic H fields on a surface enclosing the radiating device antenna. Plugin NearToFarField creates one new view.
Plugin NearestNeighbor is executed in-place. Plugin Particles creates one new view containing multi-step vector points. Plugin Probe creates one new view. Plugin Remove is executed in-place. Plugin Scal2Tens converts some scalar fields into a tensor field. The number of components must be given max. If the number of a view is -1, the value of the corresponding component is 0.
Plugin Scal2Vec converts the scalar fields into a vectorial field. If the number of a view is -1, the value of the corresponding component of the vector field is 0. Plugin ShowNeighborElements allows to set visible some given elements and a layer of elements around them, the other being set invisible.
Plugin Smooth is executed in-place. Plugin SphericalRaise is executed in-place. Plugin StreamLines creates one new view. Views can have diffrent number of time steps Warning: Plugin Tetrahedralize creates one new view. Plugin Transform is executed in-place. Algorithm selects the old 0 or new 1 meshing algorithm. Plugin Triangulate creates one new view. Plugin Warp is executed in-place. Post-processing plugins , Up: Options peculiar to post-processing views take two forms. The list of all post-processing and view options is given in Post-processing options list. Node and element tags can be "sparse", i.
However, using non-continuous tags will lead to performance degradation. For meshes, non-continuous indexing forces Gmsh to use a map instead of a vector to access nodes and elements. The performance hit is on speed. For post-processing datasets, which always use vectors to access data, the performance hit is on memory. Any section with an unrecognized header is simply ignored: Sections can be repeated in the same file, and post-processing sections can be put into separate files e.
Nodes are assumed to be defined before elements. In binary mode Mesh. Note that the binary mode will evolve in a future minor revision of the format to allow for bit node and element tags. The post-processing sections are identical to the ones in the version 2 file format see below. These sections will be reworked in a future minor revision of the version 4 format e. Legacy formats , Previous: MSH file format version 4 , Up: Historically, Gmsh developers have started by implementing linear elements lines, triangles, quads, tets, prisms and hexes. Then, second and sometimes third order elements have been hardcoded.
The node ordering of a higher order possibly curved element is compatible with the numbering of low order element it is a generalization. We number nodes in the following order:. The numbering for internal nodes is recursive, i. The higher order nodes are assumed to be equispaced.
Furthermore, an edge is oriented from the node with the lowest to the highest index. The orientation of a face is such that the computed normal points outward; the starting point is the node with the lowest index. Node ordering , Up: Future versions of Gmsh will continue to support these formats, but we recommend that you do not use them in new applications. Note that the node-number s do not necessarily have to form a dense nor an ordered sequence. Note that the elm-number s do not necessarily have to form a dense nor an ordered sequence. By default, the first tag is the tag of the physical entity to which the element belongs; the second is the tag of the elementary geometrical entity to which the element belongs; the third is the number of mesh partitions to which the element belongs, followed by the partition ids negative partition ids indicate ghost cells.
A zero tag is equivalent to no tag. Gmsh and most codes using the MSH 2 format require at least the first two tags physical and elementary tags. The ordering of the nodes is given in Node ordering. By default the first string-tag is interpreted as the name of the post-processing view and the second as the name of the interpolation scheme.
By default the first real-tag is interpreted as a time value associated with the dataset. By default the first integer-tag is interpreted as a time step index starting at 0 , the second as the number of field components of the data in the view 1, 3 or 9 , the third as the number of entities nodes or elements in the view, and the fourth as the partition index for the view data 0 for no partition. For NodeData respectively ElementData views, there are ncomp values per node resp.
For ElementNodeData views, there are ncomp times number-of-nodes-per-elements values per element. Currently you should provide 2 matrices, i. The matrices are specified by 2 integers num-rows and num-columns followed by the values. Below is a small example a mesh consisting of two quadrangles with an associated nodal scalar dataset; the comments are not part of the actual file! This integer is used for detecting if the computer on which the binary file was written and the computer on which the file is read are of the same type little or big endian. Here is a pseudo C code to write elements-binary for triangles with the 2 standard tags the physical and elementary regions:.
MSH file format version 2 , Up: If reg-phys is equal to zero, the element is considered not to belong to any physical entity. This is redundant, but kept for backward compatibility. POS binary file format , Previous: MSH file format version 1 , Up: If coord1 respectively coord2 is negative, the position is measured from the right respectively bottom edge of the window. If coord1 respectively coord2 is larger than , the string is centered horizontally respectively vertically. If style is equal to zero, the text is aligned bottom-left and displayed using the default font and size.
It is replaced with a virtually identical Timeline 5 on October 26, when Doc, Marty, Einstein and Jennifer arrive from , and observe the damage Biff has accomplished. As Biff's wealth tremendously increases by his continuous betting on winnings noted in the almanac but heeding his older self's advice to keep it a secret , he invests his winning streak into a financial empire he names BiffCo , which builds, operates, and maintains nuclear power plants, toxic waste disposals, and chemical process facilities dioxin plants, among others in and around Hill Valley.
During this period, Biff also attempts romantic relationships with and even marrying two unknown women. However, both of these marriages end in divorce because in , when a reporter asks Biff about his marriage to Lorraine McFly, he proudly states "Third time's the charm! Biff's former high school gang members Match, 3-D and Skinhead, become his bodyguards. This is the alternate timeline brought into existence when Marty, Doc, Jennifer and Einstein return from The key difference between this timeline and Timeline 4 is the simultaneous presence of two Martys his doppelganger overseas at boarding school , two Docs his doppelganger committed to a mental institution and unable to invent the time machine and the alternate Einstein and Jennifer, the latter whom is still unconscious from what she has witnessed in their A doppelgangers, if they have any, are never seen or mentioned.
This is the key timeline brought into existence when Doc and Marty arrive in to relieve Biff of his newly acquired almanac from the future, thus preventing Timeline 4 and Timeline 5 from coming into existence, but without disturbing Timeline 2 as Marty has previously accomplished. For purposes of clarification, this timeline can be thought of as a "patched" version of Timeline 2, with double Docs and Martys. It is a timeline in which Doc lives in , without Marty, for only eight months and almost seven days, and is shot by Buford Tannen. It seems the careful Doc's presence has little impact on known history until when his DeLorean is unearthed , this timeline is nearly identical to Timeline 2 with Timeline 6.
Because of Doc's unintended trip to , there are four DeLorean time machines that exist on November 12, in this timeline, because this is a timeline where a DeLorean has been stored in a mine for more than 70 years. This timeline comes into existence when Marty arrives in , to try to prevent the events that led to Doc's death in Timeline 7 at the hands of Buford Tannen. It is also the final timeline depicted in the trilogy, as the DeLorean will no longer travel backwards in time. Since Marty chooses not to race Needles upon his return to , the future is changed once again, and the alternate futures Doc and Marty have experienced in Timeline 2 and Timeline 3 are erased by this timeline.
Note: Two DeLoreans exist in this timeline for five days in , from September 2 when Marty arrived, until September 7 when he departed for This timeline comes into existence when an elderly Doc Brown travels from to an unknown point in time to prevent the hoverboard, self lacing shoes, the food hydrator, and the Mr. Fusion from being commercially available by in order to stop a nuclear holocaust from occurring in From the moment Marty steps into Doc's lab at the beginning of BTTF 1 until the moment he arrives on the railroad tracks at the end of BTTF 3, the "real world" of Hill Valley experiences an elapsed time of 2 days, 2 hours and 42 minutes.
But Marty, in a whirlwind of time travel spanning a century, experiences an elapsed time of 18 days, 7 hours and 51 minutes. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. The multiple Back to the Future timelines. See From the Earth to the Moon for details. Reduce condensation on toilet tanks and cold-water pipes by insulating them with products available at home centers.
Keep drip pans in appliances or systems such as fridges and air conditioners clean and dry. Avoid storing newspapers, clothes, and other materials that can absorb moisture in areas with poor ventilation including basements. Storage systems and shelves should allow air to move freely. Carpets should not be used in potentially damp areas, such as bathrooms or utility rooms.
Area rugs can always be used to add a sense of warmth to the area. Houseplants can help clean the air in your home, but trim any stems and leaves that rest on the soil, to prevent soil molds. Eliminate as much lingering moisture as you can. Wipe down showers and tubs after using them which also reduces soap scum. Avoid products that vent clothes dryer exhaust back into your home; they claim to recover heat and humidity but are actually a major source of excess moisture.
Getting the Lead Out—Or Not If your house was built before , chances are good that one of the layers of paint or possibly your plumbing contains lead. In fetuses and young children, lead affects brain and nervous system development. Testing for Lead According to the National Safety Council, about two-thirds of homes built before contain lead-based paint.
That figure drops to one-half for houses built between and , and it drops even further from to , when lead was banned. If your house may contain lead paint, test it. Do-it-yourself kits are available, but their reliability has been questioned. Have a qualified lead specialist investigate your house, or use a certified laboratory to test paint chips that you take yourself, carefully following their instructions. Also test water for lead levels. Lead pipes, or copper pipes that were sealed with lead-containing solder, may leach lead into water.
If lead content shows up anywhere, or if you have reason to believe that it could, all house occupants should have a blood test to show whether their lead levels are elevated. Dealing with Lead Your first step is to consult a qualified lead specialist who can tell you if the lead can be sealed safely, or if it must be removed. To control areas of lead paint, you can seal walls with wallboard or stucco. Walls in good condition can be painted over or sealed with shellac. Use a contractor certified and experienced in lead paint removal. For more information on lead in your home, contact the National Lead Information Center at w www.
Consider replacing lead pipes or lead-soldered joints where possible and practical. Also, use only cold water to fill kettles and saucepans, because hot water is more corrosive and could therefore contain more lead. Other precautions include not allowing children to chew on windowsills or wall corners, pick up paint chips, or play in soil that could contain lead. Hands should be washed frequently, as should toys, stuffed animals, and bedding. Surfaces in the home, including windowsills, should be cleaned regularly.
Radon Gas Radon is a radioactive, invisible, odorless gas produced when uranium which can be present naturally in the soil decays. The gas can seep into your home through cracks or openings in basements, walls, crawlspaces, and exposed earth surfaces often found in older basements , and into well water. As it breaks down, it becomes part of the dust that you breathe, and inhalation can lead to an increased risk of lung and other cancers. Radon gas levels can vary greatly over small distances—even in If radon is found, a number of solutions can be considered, including pressurizing the basement to keep the gas out , ventilating subflooring to carry the gas away from the house , and covering any exposed earth or rock with a polyethylene material to act as a barrier.
You should also seal cracks or openings including where wiring or pipes enter the house , and protect floor drains with a backup valve or gas trap. Charcoal filters or aeration units can remove radon from well water. You can also use these strategies if you live near a landfill or fuel refinery site, which can also release various gases through the soil if they leak.
Asbestos Asbestos occurs naturally and was mined for years before people realized that its long, flexible fibers can cause breathing problems and even cancer after prolonged exposure. It is, however, an effective insulator and fireproofing material, and it was used in a variety of home products, from ironing board covers to roof shingles and exterior siding. Once asbestos is cut, damaged, or worn, however, the fibers can become friable, or loose in the air—which is a problem.
If you know you have asbestos-containing materials, check their condition. If their condition is worn or deteriorating, or if you have any concerns, seek expert advice; you need to bring in a qualified contractor to seal or remove asbestos safely. Although you may need expert help to find solutions, your awareness and Making your home environment healthier and more comfortable is also the focus for Chapter 5, which looks at how to keep the weather outside the house from affecting you inside.
Over the years, exposure to these elements takes a toll on the house. To keep it from taking a toll on you and your wallet , aim for regular maintenance and preventive measures. If the weather turns nasty, preparation can seriously limit the damage that Mother Nature dishes out. Fall Maintenance Most fall weather-related maintenance involves preparing the house for cooler temperatures and rain or snow. Start with the roof. Has tree growth caused any branches to overhang? These can create shady, damp areas on the roof that contribute to moss or mildew growth, and can damage roof surfaces in windy weather.
Prune the branches as necessary. Splash blocks or downspout extensions should be positioned so that water runs away from the house without wearing away the soil under the downspout. This is the time to remove window air conditioners and to install storm windows. Weatherproof doors, windows, vents, and any other potential air-leak sites on the house exterior. Clean, oil, and store gardening tools for the winter, and service or prepare any snow removal tools. Spring Maintenance Spring weather-related maintenance generally involves assessing any damage or wear and tear done over the winter and getting ready for a season of garden growth and hot temperatures.
Again, start with the roof. Did the winter damage any shingles or other roof coverings or flashings? If so, replace damaged areas or assess the situation to see if replacing all of the roof covering is necessary. Although binoculars can help you see the roof, another sign of shingle deterioration is a heavy accumulation of shingle covering, such as gravel, coming down through gutters and downspouts. Have cooling systems, including appliances and any related ducting or venting, serviced professionally. Keep outdoor air conditioners free of leaves and other debris.
If you have heating oil tanks, fill them up for the nonheating season—this helps to prevent condensation that can contribute to rust or bacterial sludge problems. Remove any broken or damaged tree branches, and clean and repair gutters as necessary. If the ground surface is sloping toward the house, spring is a good time to correct it.
Also install or repair window screens as necessary. Examine windows for signs of leaks or rot, and repaint or reseal them as necessary. Check the condition of your exterior walls, foundations, trims, porches, decks, sidewalks, driveways, and fences. If repairs need to be made, schedule them for warm but not hot weather.
Pressure-wash your roof and walls, as well as the garage floor if road salt has accumulated.
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Ensure that all vents and openings in the house wall are either sealed or screened to prevent animals from entering. Inspect gardening tools for rust and smooth operation, and service lawnmowers. Inspect the house for signs of insects such as termites. Prune plants that are encroaching on house walls, and repair lawns. Also watch for signs of erosion in the yard.
This has the added advantage of preventing heated or cooled air inside from leaking out, thus reducing utility bills. Adapt the following exterior weatherproofing strategies as applicable, and see Chapter 6 for interior weatherproofing strategies. Caulking and Sealing Where possible, remove the old caulking and any loose paint around joints in windows, doors, and vents, and clean the surface. An exterior-grade, silicone acrylic latex caulk is a good all-purpose choice. Holding the gun or tube at a to degree angle, apply the caulking in a long bead all around the joint. Use steady pressure and even movement to get the best results.
If the bead of caulking is bumpy or uneven, wet the back of a spoon and run it along the bead to smooth it out you can also use your finger, but wear latex or similar gloves. Caulk-smoothing tools are also available, which produce a professionallooking finish. Fill a bigger gap with expanding-foam insulation first, or place a backer rod inside it, then caulk on top to finish the seal if necessary. Weather-Stripping a Door To check potential drafts through exterior doors, place a piece of paper between the door and the frame and close the door, or have someone shine a flashlight around the edges of the closed door.
Basically, you cut the weather-stripping material in the kit to fit the sides. Door Sweeps Door sweeps, or bottom seals, close any gaps between the bottom of the door and the threshold. Buy a door sweep kit that suits your door. They generally combine a metal strip that screws onto the door with a flexible seal that hangs below the door. Depending on the sweep, your door, and your threshold, determine whether the sweep fits better on the interior or exterior of the door. Measure the bottom edge of the door, and trim the door sweep to fit. Hold the sweep against the door and mark the screw positions.
Predrill the holes, and screw the sweep to the door. Purchase covers that fit your window well. The covers generally have a long strip built into their top that allows you to insert it between two pieces of siding. Windows and Walls If your windows are older, the glass is likely sealed to the window frame using glaze or putty. If this cracks or crumbles, drafts result.
To replace it with glazing compound, scrape out the old putty, and apply glazing compound as described in Chapter 17 for replacing the glass in a wood-frame window. Check your exterior walls. This can be sealed using thick backer rope or foam caulking. Simply buy the required length of caulking or rope, and insert it between the siding and the wall. You can seal the result with a caulking gun if necessary. Dealing with Frozen Pipes The easiest way to deal with frozen pipes is to prevent them. Before the cold season, inspect all of the plumbing pipes that lead into and through the house.
Any that run through an unheated area, or against outside walls where they could be exposed to cold temperatures, should be insulated. A number of commercial products are available for this, including foam insulation tubes that snap around the pipes and can be cut to the right length. The flame can be unsafe, and it can heat the ice so quickly that it turns into steam, which expands rapidly and can burst the pipe.
If the pipes have frozen, but not burst, open at least one of the faucets that the pipe leads to. Run your hand along the pipe, feeling for a cold spot. Look for condensation or frost on the pipe. Run a thermometer along the pipe to find the coldest part. Run a damp cloth along the pipe until you see frost forming. If the pipes have burst, shut off the water supply. A small burst might be solved by the leaky pipe fixes in Chapter 3. Garden hoses need to be removed from faucets, drained hanging them over a clothesline works well , coiled, and stored for the winter. Faucets that sit on the house exterior known as sillcocks or hose bibs generally have a shutoff valve on the pipe leading to the faucet, inside the house.
To avoid having the faucet freeze and burst during cold weather, turn off the shutoff valve, and then open the faucet to drain any water that remains in the pipe. In the spring, reopen the valve. Of course, shutting off the water means that you no longer have running water outside the house.
For mild areas, you may be able to avoid shutting off the water by buying an insulated cover for the faucet. These extend a long tube into the house, inside which is the valve that opens and closes the water supply—handily located beyond the freezing temperatures. Talk to your plumbing store staff, perhaps bringing with you a Polaroid or digital photo of your current setup so that they can properly advise you on the right sillcock to buy.
Replace the old sillcock with the new one, fastening its collar loosely in place on the exterior house wall.
Double-check that the sillcock tube meets the water pipe and that the sillcock is installed at a slight downward angle to let the water automatically drain out of it. Tighten up the screws that fasten the sillcock to the outside wall, and caulk any gaps. Turn the water back on, and check for leaks. The snowmelt runs down the roof and builds up along the colder edge of the roof, freezing into an icy mass as it does so. This can seriously damage the roof, because it forces water up underneath the shingles and into the roof structure, causing it to leak or rot. If you notice ice dams building along your roof, try running a garden hose attached to your hot-water tap over one spot in the dam, to create an escape route for the water and stop the dam from expanding.
Chipping the ice away from the roof yourself is not recommended. Insulating and ventilating the attic is the best way to prevent ice dams from forming. Natural Disasters Basic emergency preparedness measures are easy and inexpensive, and they can help prevent both injuries and property damage. First, know the emergencies most likely to occur in your area. Depending on your situation, and how vulnerable you are to the effects of a power outage, consider alternative sources of electricity and heat.
These range from generators to solar power, and from wood stoves to battery backups. You can also prevent damage to your house, garage, or yard by having a professional arborist inspect trees for signs of rot or disease once every five years, and by dealing with damaged or weak tree branches as you see them.
If you need to evacuate your house, and you have sufficient time, unplug appliances, shut off utility supplies as necessary, lock your doors and windows, and prepare your house for cold temperatures if necessary. Ask for their publication Are You Ready? A Guide to Citizen Preparedness. They also have a range of publications about preparing for and dealing with specific disasters. Another option is to have all such appliances plugged into a surge-protected power bar, as are commonly used for computers. When lightning strikes a house, it can spark electrical fires within the Whether or not you can see or smell smoke, evacuate the house, and call the fire department so that they can check it out.
Major electrical storms, freezing rain, and other weather phenomena can all cause power outages. If a major storm is in the forecast, turn up your freezer and fridge to the highest settings. If the power goes out, the deeply chilled food will last longer before beginning to thaw. Freezes If the house is going to sit at below-freezing temperatures because of a power cut for an extended period, unplug your appliances.
When the power is restored, let the appliance warm up a little before plugging it back in, as most are not designed to operate in freezing temperatures. To prevent your water supply from freezing, turn off the main water shutoff. Open all faucets and flush the toilets. If you know the house will freeze, put nontoxic antifreeze in all traps, such as toilets, sinks, washing machines, and floor drains.
Floods Limited flooding can be kept from your house by sandbags or other temporary barrier systems, especially when combined with a sump pump, but a serious flood may overwhelm these. If you have advance notice of floodwaters, move all furniture and belongings to the highest floor in the house, shut off all utilities and appliances such as heating and airconditioning systems, and take important papers or items with you when you evacuate. To limit the damage from contained flooding, such as that coming into the house from a damaged roof, line the floor with a plastic tarpaulin or other heavy-duty plastic sheet, taping it partway up the walls.
This should keep the worst of the water from running through the house and will give you a contained area to either bail or mop. Floodwaters can be contaminated with wastewater, sewage, and pesticides or manure from nearby fields; protect yourself with boots and gloves, and use the disinfecting solution advised by your local emergency measures organization. Inspect your house foundation for cracks, and watch for signs of settling inside the house, in case the flood affected the foundation.
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To prevent wind damage, keep trees around the house in good shape, maintain gutters and downspouts, and ensure that structural elements such as roofs comply with local building codes. These usually require some kind of extra strapping or clipping to secure the roof structure in areas vulnerable to wind storms. In these areas, you should also consider permanent storm shutters for your windows. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Write a customer review.
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Fuses in the box look like small glass circles. They are screwed into the box in sockets, much like a light bulb in a lamp. When too much power is being drawn, the fuse blows before the wires can overheat.
While this may inconvenience you, the electrical fire it prevented probably would have inconvenienced you more. To replace a blown fuse, you must be careful to use the exact kind of fuse that you are removing. The information is usually written on the part of the fuse you will see as you examine it. If you do not have any spare fuses, it is a wise idea to take the blown fuse to the local hardware store so you can find the exact type of fuse for replacement.
While shopping, you may want to pick up more than you need so. If you are looking at a box of on-off switches, your house uses circuit breakers.