The Lentil: Botany, Production and Uses
The Lentil provides a timely synopsis of the current knowledge associated with this highly digestible and protein-packed grain with its ability to use water efficiently and to grow in marginal environments. Newsletter Google 4. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Contents Customer reviews Related titles.
Images Additional images. About this book Though of ancient origin, the lentil is today very much a crop of the modern world confronted with issues of food security, poverty, water scarcity and the need to find sustainable agricultural systems in a changing climate. Contents 1. Introduction; 2. Global Production, Supply and Demand; 3. Origin, Phylogeny, Domestication and Spread; 4. Plant Morphology, Anatomy and Growth Habit; 5. Agro-ecology and Crop Adaptation; 6. Genetic Resources; 7. Genetics of Economic Traits; 8.
Genetic Enhancement for Yield and Yield Stability; 9. Breeding for Short Season Environments; Improvement in Developed Countries; Advances in Molecular Research; Soil Nutrient Management; Cropping Systems and Production Agronomy; Mechanization; Diseases and Their Management; Insect Pests and Their Management; Virus Diseases and Their Control; Weed Management; Parasitic Weeds; Nutritional and Health-beneficial Quality; Post-harvest Processing and Value Addition; Presumably, grasspea formed a barrier to radial loss of O 2.
Solaiman et al. Further research is warranted to confirm the hypothesis. Decreased shoot nitrogen in response to waterlogging has been well documented—wheat Huang et al. Nitrogen reduction varied between legume genotypes under waterlogging due to effects on nitrogen fixation and the number of nodules Cannell et al.
The reduction of shoot nitrogen in waterlogged crops was due to a decrease in nutrient uptake Malik et al. Waterlogging causes stelar anoxia to develop in the root Aguilar et al. In the current experiment, those genotypes able to enhance root porosity under waterlogging managed to maintain shoot N better—as in lotus James and Sprent ; Striker et al.
Variation within species in chlorophyll retention in waterlogging conditions was reported in soya bean Youn et al. Once again, in this respect pea—Kaspa and lentil—Nugget showed better performance than other genotype pairs while the control grasspea also performed well. Waterlogging reduced shoot growth in wheat Malik et al. Other studies mentioned no significant effect of waterlogging on shoot growth in lupin, pea, lentil, faba bean, chickpea and grasspea during the treatment period i.
We did not find an effect of waterlogging on shoot and root mass in our experiment. Increase in shoot dry weight in wheat has been reported when exposed to a short period e. Moreover, roots responded to waterlogging by altering their distribution pattern and producing numerous lateral roots visual observation.
These roots grew close to the soil surface to obtain oxygen under waterlogging conditions Voesenek et al.
Root length recovers from waterlogging once allowed to grow in drained conditions. In wheat, stored carbohydrate was preferentially allocated to the re-growth of the root system during recovery Malik et al. Root length recovered to the control value for tolerant legumes in the present experiment. This resulted in increasing net uptake of nitrogen transported to the shoot Buwalda et al.
- Introduction: The lentil Botany, Production and Uses.
- Lentil : Botany, Production and Uses.
- Tolerance of three grain legume species to transient waterlogging?
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Plants had to direct their energies into renewed pigment production, and re-greened chlorotic leaves at the onset of recovery Smethurst et al. A previous study showed that pea and grasspea did not recover within 10 days after termination of waterlogging Solaiman et al. Presumably, in our study, a longer recovery period led to the different result. In the present study, relatively waterlogging-tolerant genotypes had an altered root distribution i.
But the overall root dry weight was similar for both drained and waterlogged treatments. However, there are disadvantages to the formation of the lateral roots— Armstrong et al. However, in the current experiment plants maintained growth during the stress periods; presumably, the lateral roots become functional roots as demonstrated for pasture legumes Gibberd et al.
It is promising that during the recovery period the shallow root resumed growth and reached the same length as in the drained control, allowing access to soil moisture at depth as the soil profile dries later in the season. The present study with a limited number of legume genotypes identified variations in tolerance to transient waterlogging and its recovery between legume crops and also intra-species variation in pea and lentil—associated with seed mass. Waterlogging-tolerant legume genotypes had high root porosity, were relatively unaffected in shoot nitrogen content under waterlogging and in recovery could resume root growth and rapidly regain chlorophyll concentration to control levels.
Clearly, there is substantial potential to select in a wider range of both pea and lentil germplasm for increased levels of waterlogging tolerance. Further investigation should first focus on evaluation of a large number of genotypes within each species of legumes to determine the genetic variation, followed by physiological assessment using contrasting genotypes. All Authors agreed to the final version of the manuscript. The authors gratefully acknowledge the above funding. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List AoB Plants v.
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Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Contributed by Associate Editor: Abdelbagi M. Received Nov 19; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Waterlogging reduces the yield of food crops. Keywords: Chlorophyll, intra-species variation, legume, porosity, waterlogging. Introduction Soil waterlogging is a common abiotic stress that impacts on crop production Jackson and Colmer Names, country of origin and seed weight of five legume genotypes. Open in a separate window.
Measurements Redox Redox potential was measured daily in 15 pots i. Growth Harvested plants were divided into shoots and roots. Nitrogen, chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence Oven-dried pulverized samples were analysed for total nitrogen N in shoots using an auto analyser Elementer, Model: Vario Macro, Hanau, Germany against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and rice flour as standards.
Statistical analysis Two-way analyses of variance ANOVAs were performed using GenStat 14th edition VSN International to determine the effects of plant genotype 2 pea, 2 lentil and 1 grass pea , waterlogging well drained, waterlogged for 14 days, waterlogged for 35 days and their interaction on the following response variables: main root length, main root porosity, shoot chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, shoot and root mass. Root growth Roots of plants grown in drained soil reached the base of pots after 14 days of treatment for all genotypes. Porosity of main and lateral roots In drained soil, main root porosity was highest i.
Shoot growth and chlorophyll concentration Shoot dry mass differed significantly among legume genotypes grown in drained soil.
The Lentil Botany, Production and Uses
Nitrogen concentration Total shoot nitrogen concentration decreased over time in all plants grown in drained conditions Fig. Discussion The results demonstrated a significant variation in waterlogging tolerance within legumes. Variation in waterlogging tolerance among legume genotypes Genetic variation in waterlogging tolerance within legume species has been demonstrated in lupin Davies et al. Effect of waterlogging on growth Waterlogging reduced shoot growth in wheat Malik et al. Recovery from waterlogging Root length recovers from waterlogging once allowed to grow in drained conditions.
Conclusion The present study with a limited number of legume genotypes identified variations in tolerance to transient waterlogging and its recovery between legume crops and also intra-species variation in pea and lentil—associated with seed mass. Contributions by the Authors T. Conflict of Interest Statement None declared. Acknowledgements T. Oxygen distribution and movement, respiration and nutrient loading in banana roots Musa spp. Plant and Soil — Cropping systems and production agronomy. The lentil: botany, production and uses.
Enhancing lentil Lens culinaris Medik. Aeration in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research 7 — Oxygen diffusion in pea II. Oxygen concentrations in the primary pea root apex as affected by growth, the production of laterals and radial oxygen loss. New Phytologist 94 — Effects of waterlogging on growth and some physiological parameters of four Brassica species.
Establishment of legumes following rice—a review. Bacanamwo M, Purcell LC. Soybean dry matter and N accumulation responses to flooding stress, N sources and hypoxia. Journal of Experimental Botany 50 — Managing excess water in Canadian prairie soils: a review. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 89 — Root growth of lupins is more sensitive to waterlogging than wheat. Functional Plant Biology 38 — Effects of growing wheat in hypoxic nutrient solutions and of subsequent transfer to aerated solutions.
Concentrations and uptake of nutrients and sodium in shoots and roots. Functional Plant Biology 15 — Effects of waterlogging at different stages of development on the growth and yield of winter oilseed rape Brassica napus L. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31 — Effects of short-term waterlogging on the growth and yield of peas Pisum sativum. Annals of Applied Biology 93 — Long-distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and radial oxygen loss from roots.
Plant, Cell and Environment 26 — Tolerance of anoxia and ethanol metabolism in germinating seeds. New Phytologist 79 — Yellow lupin Lupinus luteus tolerates waterlogging better than narrow-leafed lupin L. Shoot and root growth in a controlled environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 51 — Global production, supply and demand. Current and future strategies in breeding lentil for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
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Euphytica 73 — Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Root porosity and oxygen movement in waterlogging-tolerant Trifolium tomentosum and -intolerant Trifolium glomeratum. Plant, Cell and Environment 22 — Annals of Botany 88 — Soya bean Glycine max L. Root and nodule development. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science — Growth, physiological and anatomical responses of two wheat genotypes to waterlogging and nutrient supply.
Journal of Experimental Botany 45 — Rapid injury to peas by soil waterlogging. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 30 — Response and adaptation by plants to flooding stress. Annals of Botany 96 — Development of N 2 -fixing nodules on the wetland legume Lotus uliginosus exposed to conditions of flooding. New Phytologist — Changes in physiological and morphological traits of roots and shoots of wheat in response to different depths of waterlogging. Functional Plant Biology 28 — Short-term waterlogging has long-term effects on the growth and physiology of wheat. Relay sowing of lentil Lens culinaris subsp.
The Journal of Agricultural Science Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte Zea mays ssp. Euphytica — QTL mapping of adventitious root formation under flooding conditions in tropical maize Zea mays L. Breeding Science 55 — Plant growth, nutrient acquisition and mycorrhizal symbioses of a waterlogging tolerant legume Lotus glaber Mill. Effects of transient subsurface waterlogging on root growth, plant biomass and yield of chickpea. Agricultural Water Management 97 — Growth and physiological responses of six barley genotypes to waterlogging and subsequent recovery.
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 55 — Redox measurements of soils. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3—chemical methods. Tropical crops dicotyledons. London, UK: Longman. Management factors affecting legumes production in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In: Legumes in rice and wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plain-constraints and opportunities. A method for measuring leaf volume, density, thickness, and internal gas volume. HortScience 18 — Waterlogging tolerance and recovery of 10 Lotus species. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48 —