However, the Clinton administration continued to be passive in the international arena. Mearsheimer is right , 58—59 when he compares such behaviour to the inter-war period, where the US retreated into isolationism. Such a policy focused on exports, but overlooked security and political instabilities of the markets where the exports went to Nau , 3—6.
Therefore the US did not confront the main challenges of the post-Cold War world the rise of China, what to do with Russia, growing instability of some regions Nau , 3—6. In particular, he proved reluctant to support these initiatives with the requisite amount of military force Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, or Kosovo. All of these were additional catalysts for the change in the US behaviour in international relations. In December the Dayton accords were signed in Paris that ended the war in the Balkans. The idea behind that was if China is included into the global community, democratic changes can be triggered.
Furthermore, China does not respect commitments of certain international organisations WTO Hughes , The second Clinton administration became more assertive and began to follow the unipolar momentum. It also changed its rhetoric. We stand tall and we see further than other countries into the future, and we see the danger here to all of us Albright Our main argument for it is that US changed its behaviour; however, it still lacked a coherent vision of its actions.
Namely, unipolarity by definition needs a force to maintain and govern it according to its vision. The multipolar world of the s that was a result of the inactivity of the US began to take a different shape. The idea of unipolarity was never implemented and manifested fully in a foreign policy vision. After , and with the new president George Walker Bush, such a vision took shape and form. The world thus became unipolar in with the G.
Upon taking office in , the G. Bush administration initiated some significant changes in American grand strategy: it emphasised military preparedness, great-power politics, and concrete national interests Dueck , Immediately after the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq some authors even argued that such a concentration of power was never present in world history Brooks and Wohlforth As one can observe, the reasons for changing polarity since the end of the Cold War were not material, but rather political.
It was political decisions that produced multipolarity in the s, and it was political decisions that made the world unipolar in The G. Bush Administration came into office confident of the US supremacy, especially military, and was determined to preserve it Friedberg , This administration had a vision of a new foreign policy for the US. It was manifested in an article written by Condoleezza Rice in published in Foreign Affairs.
Ikenberry saw this new USA foreign policy strategy as neo-imperialistic. Moreover, the key feature of the new concept is coping with rogue regimes, and managing Beijing and Moscow Rice Early on the G. Bush administration saw China and Russia as strategic challenges. This view changed after 11 September and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. It showed the power and unipolar resolve of the US. It has intensified the unipolar structure and brought changes to the US foreign policy, but the international system has not been systematically changed by it. On the other hand, the acts that followed 11 September revealed a vulnerability of the super power.
Furthermore, after the attacks, the US foreign policy was altered. China and Russia were not perceived as strategic challenges anymore, but as strategic allies. The War on Terror demanded the adaptation of the strategy.
The National Security Strategy of the United States in had conceptualised such a change and some authors named it the Bush doctrine Krauthammer Furthermore, the Pentagon also adopted a new doctrine—the so-called It required a force able to defend the US homeland, operate in and from four forward regions, swiftly and simultaneously defeat two regional adversaries, and achieve a more decisive and enduring result such as regime change in one of those regions Owens , These new strategies had its negative effects on the US as well, especially for its soft power.
In the eyes of many countries it is becoming the rogue superpower Huntington , Still in and the US supremacy was not disputed. Krauthammer , 17 reframed the unipolar moment into a unipolar era. Even more, Kennedy , who predicted the fall of the US in the late s, admitted his mistake. Indeed, the ideas of multipolarity and declinism were at the best only in the back seat. However, the US did not establish an empire.
The US economy started to show its weaknesses. Furthermore, the military interventions could not stabilise Afghanistan and Iraq. The US learned the hard way, as Jervis , 86 put it, it is harder to build than to destroy. Bush administration noticed this and for the second time readjusted its foreign policy strategy outlined in The National Security Strategy of The United States of America Nye pointed out that the structural power and the different power factors of the US, although it is the biggest power, cannot be controlled.
The term unipolarity is misleading because it exaggerates the degree to which the US is able to get the results it wants in some dimensions of world politics Nye , 38— Just because the United States has the largest economy and the most powerful military does not mean that it can get everyone to do everything it wants all of the time. Was a new era of multipolarity at hand? Our answer is—not really. But that does not mean that the world is unipolar.
A unipolar system would have one superpower, no significant major powers, and many minor powers. A multipolar system has several major powers of comparable strength that cooperate and compete with each other in shifting patterns. Contemporary international politics does not fit any of these three models. It is instead a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powers.
The concept that Huntington presented became a reality after , not in when he wrote it. Furthermore, other major powers could not yet counter-balance the power of the US, so the world was not multipolar. Other major powers still need the US on board if they wish to do something substantial in the world. The same goes for the US, which needs a number of major powers in order to do something substantial in the world. For the volatile time of the post-Cold War international system this is quite substantial. Moreover, after the US was able, albeit briefly, to create a unipolarity. We argue that Huntington underestimated the role of the agency, and overestimated the power of other players in the world.
The name uni-multipolarity may indicate that some of the aspects of the international system are unipolar, and others are multipolar. Such an interpretation may be found in Nye analyses. As demonstrated, the first G. Bush administration implemented the idea of unipolarity. Therefore, the structure of the international system went from multipolar to unipolar. With the US entangled up in Afghanistan and Iraq, its economy slowing down, the rise of other actors in the international arena, unreached goals, and dealing with uncontrollable outcomes, the world has become uni-multipolar.
Many expected that such a system will be transformed into a multipolar one. However, we will argue differently. Through the military entanglement in Afghanistan and Iraq, the new Security strategy of the US and the economic situation in the US, Richard Haass observed an increasing distributed power, rather than a concentrated power in the world. Power is now found in many hands and in many places Haass Haass builds on the narrative of Suzan Strange, who wrote that the power is shifting sideways from states to markets and other non-state actors Strange , Many observers have interpreted the global financial crisis as the beginning of the American decline Nye , especially due to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers 15 September Indeed, the latter has had a much bigger impact on the international system then 11 September The economic crisis not only hurt the US economic and military power, but it also hurt the US soft power.
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Furthermore, the US soft power had similar effects as seen by the reluctance to close Guantanamo prison, incidents in Abu Ghraib and other indiscretions by the US soldiers urination on corpses, tarring the Quran , and the drone war. Yet, we argue that this new wave of American declinism suffers from the same flaws as previous ones—overestimation of particular facts.
It seemed that with the Obama administration, the US would buffer the negative consequences of the military actions on the US soft power. Not only had Guantanamo not been closed as Obama had promised, but distasteful incidents by soldiers continued, the drone war escalated, and the US assassinated not only terrorists in foreign countries, but also its own citizens in foreign countries that were considered as a threat to its security—without trial.
However, some other authors made completely different conclusions than Haass. Haass focuses on the analyses of the outcomes, and Joffe on the power factors. There is a big gap between them. People with bipolar disorder often experience a decline in cognitive functioning during or possibly before their first episode, after which a certain degree of cognitive dysfunction typically becomes permanent, with more severe impairment during acute phases and moderate impairment during periods of remission.
As a result, two-thirds of people with BD continue to experience impaired psychosocial functioning in between episodes even when their mood symptoms are in full remission. Higher degrees of impairment correlate with the number of previous manic episodes and hospitalizations, and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. Despite the overly ambitious goals that are frequently part of manic episodes, symptoms of mania undermine the ability to achieve these goals and often interfere with an individual's social and occupational functioning. One third of people with BD remain unemployed for one year following a hospitalization for mania.
A naturalistic study from first admission for mania or mixed episode representing the hospitalized and therefore most severe cases found that 50 percent achieved syndromal recovery no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis within six weeks and 98 percent within two years. Within two years, 72 percent achieved symptomatic recovery no symptoms at all and 43 percent achieved functional recovery regaining of prior occupational and residential status. However, 40 percent went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19 percent switched phases without recovery.
Symptoms preceding a relapse prodromal , specially those related to mania, can be reliably identified by people with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts. Individuals whose bipolar disorder begins with a depressive or mixed affective episode seem to have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of suicide. Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide and has a lifetime prevalence of about 1 to 3 percent in the general population. Including sub-threshold diagnostic criteria, such as one or two symptoms over a short time-period, an additional 5.
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There are conceptual and methodological limitations and variations in the findings. In addition, diagnoses and therefore estimates of prevalence vary depending on whether a categorical or spectrum approach is used. This consideration has led to concerns about the potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. The incidence of bipolar disorder is similar in men and women  as well as across different cultures and ethnic groups.
Age-standardized prevalence per , ranged from However, severity may differ widely across the globe. Disability-adjusted life year rates, for example, appear to be higher in developing countries, where medical coverage may be poorer and medication less available. Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of bipolar disorder. Variations in moods and energy levels have been observed as part of the human experience throughout history.
The words " melancholia ", an old word for depression, and "mania" originated in Ancient Greece. Within the humoral theories, mania was viewed as arising from an excess of yellow bile, or a mixture of black and yellow bile. The linguistic origins of mania, however, are not so clear-cut. Several etymologies were proposed by the Ancient Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus , including the Greek word ania , meaning "to produce great mental anguish", and manos , meaning "relaxed" or "loose", which would contextually approximate to an excessive relaxing of the mind or soul.
These concepts were developed by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin — , who, using Kahlbaum 's concept of cyclothymia,  categorized and studied the natural course of untreated bipolar patients. He coined the term manic depressive psychosis , after noting that periods of acute illness, manic or depressive, were generally punctuated by relatively symptom-free intervals where the patient was able to function normally.
The term "manic—depressive reaction " appeared in the first version of the DSM in , influenced by the legacy of Adolf Meyer. There are widespread problems with social stigma , stereotypes, and prejudice against individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Kay Redfield Jamison , a clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , profiled her own bipolar disorder in her memoir An Unquiet Mind Several dramatic works have portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis that has been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike.
A notable example is Mr. Jones , in which Mr. Jones Richard Gere swings from a manic episode into a depressive phase and back again, spending time in a psychiatric hospital and displaying many of the features of the syndrome. TV specials , for example the BBC 's Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive ,  MTV 's True Life : I'm Bipolar , talk shows, and public radio shows, and the greater willingness of public figures to discuss their own bipolar disorder, have focused on psychiatric conditions, thereby, raising public awareness.
On April 7, , the nighttime drama on the CW network, aired a special episode where the character Silver was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The storyline was developed as part of the BBC's Headroom campaign. A link between mental illness and professional success or creativity has been suggested, including in accounts by Socrates , Seneca the Younger , and Cesare Lombroso. Despite prominence in popular culture, the link between creativity and bipolar has not been rigorously studied. This area of study also is likely affected by confirmation bias.
Some evidence suggests that some heritable component of bipolar disorder overlaps with heritable components of creativity. Probands of people with bipolar disorder are more likely to be professionally successful, as well as to demonstrate temperamental traits similar to bipolar disorder. Furthermore, while studies of the frequency of bipolar disorder in creative population samples have been conflicting, studies that have a positive finding report that full blown bipolar disorder is rare.
In the s, Emil Kraepelin noted that manic episodes are rare before puberty. This issue diminished with an increased following of the DSM criteria in the last part of the twentieth century. While in adults the course of bipolar disorder is characterized by discrete episodes of depression and mania with no clear symptomatology between them, in children and adolescents very fast mood changes or even chronic symptoms are the norm.
The diagnosis of childhood bipolar disorder is controversial,  although it is not under discussion that the typical symptoms of bipolar disorder have negative consequences for minors suffering them. Treatment involves medication and psychotherapy. Current research directions for bipolar disorder in children include optimizing treatments, increasing the knowledge of the genetic and neurobiological basis of the pediatric disorder and improving diagnostic criteria.
There is a relative lack of knowledge about bipolar disorder in late life. There is evidence that it becomes less prevalent with age but nevertheless accounts for a similar percentage of psychiatric admissions; that older bipolar patients had first experienced symptoms at a later age; that later onset of mania is associated with more neurologic impairment; that substance abuse is considerably less common in older groups; and that there is probably a greater degree of variation in presentation and course, for instance individuals may develop new-onset mania associated with vascular changes, or become manic only after recurrent depressive episodes, or may have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder at an early age and still meet criteria.
There is also some weak and not conclusive evidence that mania is less intense and there is a higher prevalence of mixed episodes, although there may be a reduced response to treatment. Overall, there are likely more similarities than differences from younger adults. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Bipolar Disorders journal. For other uses, see Manic depression disambiguation. Main article: Major depressive disorder. Main article: Mixed affective state.
Main article: Associated features of bipolar disorder. Further information: Biology of bipolar disorder.
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