Transport Survey Methods: Best Practice for Decision Making (0)
Early engagement between interested parties is important in agreeing the level and scope of assessment required. A transport assessment is likely to be scenario based and in terms of projections look at a range of potential outcomes given a number of assumptions, for example, a movement in the proportion of people using different forms of transport consistent with best practice.
Transport data should be included that reflects the typical neutral flow conditions on the network for example, non-school holiday periods, typical weather conditions etc in the area of the Plan, and should be valid for the intended purposes. It should also take account of holiday periods in tourist areas, where peaks could occur in periods that might normally be considered non-neutral. The recommended periods for data collection are spring and autumn, which include the neutral months of April, May, June, September and October.
In terms of road traffic, but not other types of traffic, where there is a need to project existing or historical traffic data for future year assessments, the preferred option is the use of appropriate local traffic forecasts such as the Trip End Model Presentation Program used for transport planning purposes , provided they offer a robust assessment. However, it is important to ensure that this does not just perpetuate existing travel patterns but, where reasonable to do so, facilitates the use of sustainable modes of transport. The use of any area-wide traffic models or background growth rates should be agreed with the relevant transport or highway authority at the evidence gathering stage of the Local Plan.
Care needs to be taken when considering using any model that it takes account of the need to address historic travel patterns not necessarily reinforce them. To assess the availability of the capacity of the road network, the transport assessment should take into account:. The first step in quantifying the impact of proposed land allocations in the Local Plan on the transport system is to provide an estimate of the person trips for all types of transport that are likely to be generated by it. In all cases, an analysis of development-related trips using an appropriate database or an alternative methodology should be agreed with the relevant highway authorities, as this will form the major element of the assessment.
An assessment of the impacts of the proposed additional land allocations can be initiated once initial potential allocations have been determined. There needs to be a description of the type of development at each of the locations proposed in as much detail as possible at the time. Information that could be required includes:. The above requirements are not exhaustive and will require adaptation to reflect the knowledge about the potential site allocations and developments as well as the type and scale of the proposed developments.
All types of transport should be covered by safety considerations and accident analysis, taking into account the objective of facilitating, where reasonable to do so, the use of sustainable modes of transport. The level of detail required will be dependent on the stage of the Local Plan. The extent of the safety issue considerations and accident analysis will depend on the scale and type of developments in the context of the character of the affected Strategic Road Network.
The need to minimise conflicts between vehicles and other road user groups should be adequately addressed. Critical locations on the road network with poor accident records should be identified. This is to determine if the proposed land allocations will exacerbate existing problems and whether highway mitigation works or traffic management measures will be required to alleviate such problems.
An integrated urban water cycle planning and management system that includes a high-performance infrastructure for sewage recycling grey and black water recycling , storm water retention and harvesting the substantial run-off through storage, must be a routine in all design projects. On a household level we need to collect rain water and use it sparingly for washing and install dual-water systems and low-flush toilets.
On a food production level we need to investigate the development of crops that need less water and are more drought resistant. Which strategies can be applied to protect and maximize biodiversity and to re-introduce landscape and garden ideas back in the city, to ensure urban cooling? This pride is best formed through a strong focus on local biodiversity, habitat and ecology, wildlife rehabilitation, forest conservation and the protecting of regional characteristics.
Ready access to these public parks, gardens and public spaces, with opportunities for leisure and recreation, are essential components of a healthy city. As is arresting the loss of biodiversity by enhancing the natural environment and landscape, and planning the city using ecological principles based on natural cycles not on energy-intensive technology as a guide, and increasing urban vegetation.
A city that preserves and maximizes its open spaces, natural landscapes and recreational opportunities is a more healthy and resilient city. Further, the narrowing of roads, which calms traffic and lowers the UHI effect, allows for more all-important tree planting. Preserving green space, gardens and farmland, maintaining a green belt around the city, and planting trees everywhere including golf courses , as trees absorb CO 2 , is an important mission. As is conserving natural resources, respecting natural energy streams and restoring stream and river banks, maximizing species diversity.
At home, we need to de-pave the driveway or tear up parking lots.
In all urban planning, we need to maintain and protect the existing eco-system that stores carbon e. The increase in the percentage of green space as a share of total city land is to be performed in combination with densification activities.
How can we get people out of their cars, to walk, cycle, and use public transport? It is important to identify the optimal transport mix that offers inter-connections for public transport and the integration of private and public transport systems. It is a fact that more and wider roads result in more car and truck traffic, and CO 2 emissions, and also allows for sprawling development and suburbs that increases electricity-demand and provides less green space. The transport sector is responsible for causing significant greenhouse-gas emissions over 20 per cent.
To combat this effect we need to change our lifestyles by, for example, taking public transport, driving the car less, or car-pooling. Alternatively, we can ride a bike or walk, if the city district has been designed for it. Personal arrangements have the potential to reduce commuting and to boost community spirit. We want a city district which is well-connected for pedestrians, a city with streetscapes that encourage a healthy, active lifestyle and where residents travel less and less by car. What kind of materials are locally available and appear in regional, vernacular architecture?
Affordable housing can be achieved through modular prefabrication. Prefabrication has come and gone several times in modern architecture, but this time, with closer collaboration with manufacturers of construction systems and building components in the design phase, the focus will be on sustainability. We need to support innovation and be aware of sustainable production and consumption, the embodied energy of materials and the flow of energy in closing life-cycles.
We need to emphasize green manufacturing and an economy of means, such as process-integrated technologies that lead to waste reduction. It is more environmentally friendly to use lightweight structures, enclosures and local materials with less embodied energy, requiring minimal transport. We need improved material and system specifications, supported by research in new materials and technological innovation; reduced material diversity in multi-component products to help facilitate the design for resource recovery, disassembly, value retention, and the possibility of reusing entire building components.
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Success in this area will increase the long-term durability of buildings, reduce waste and minimize packaging. What are the opportunities to motivate people to move back to the city, closer to workplaces in the city centre? Consideration will need to be given to better land-use planning to reduce the impact of urban areas on agricultural land and landscape; to increasing urban resilience by transforming city districts into more compact communities and designing flexible typologies for inner-city living and working.
Special strategies for large metropolitan areas and fast-growing cities are required. Here, examples of rapid development are being provided by Asian cities. Special strategies are also needed for small and medium-sized towns due to their particular milieu, and creative concepts are needed for the particular vulnerabilities of Small Island States and coastal cities.
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Public space upgrading through urban renewal programs will bring people back to the city centre. This will need some strategic thinking about how to use brownfield and greyfield developments and also the adaptive reuse of existing buildings. Remodeling and re-energizing existing city centres to bring about diverse and vibrant communities requires people to move back into downtown areas.
In the compact city, every neighbourhood is sustainable and self-sufficient; and uses Energy Services Company principles for self-financing energy efficiency and in all retrofitting programs. How can we best apply sustainable design and passive design principles in all their forms and for all buildings? New design typologies need to be developed at low cost, and we need to produce functionally neutral buildings that last longer.
We need to apply facade technology with responsive building skins for bio-climatic architecture, to take advantage of cooling breezes and natural cross-ventilation, maximizing cross-ventilation, day-lighting and opportunities for night-flush cooling; we need to focus on the low consumption of resources and materials, including the reuse of building elements; and design for disassembly.
Other ideas include: mixed-use concepts for compact housing typologies; adaptive reuse projects that rejuvenate mature estates; solar architecture that optimizes solar gain in winter and sun shading technology for summer, catching the low winter sun and avoiding too much heat gain in summer. It is important to renew the city with energy-efficient green architecture, creating more flexible buildings of long-term value and longevity.
Flexibility in plan leads to a longer life for buildings. Technical systems and services have a shorter life-cycle. This means, first of all, applying technical aids sparingly and making the most of all passive means provided by the building fabric and natural conditions. Buildings that generate more energy than they consume, and collect and purify their own water, are totally achievable.
We need to acknowledge that the city as a whole is more important than any individual building. How does urban design recognize the particular need for affordable housing, to ensure a vibrant mix of society and multi-functional mixed-use programs? A mixed-use and mixed-income city delivers more social sustainability and social inclusion, and helps to repopulate the city centre.
Demographic changes, such as age, are a major issue for urban design. It is advantageous for any project to maximize the diversity of its users. Different sectors in the city can take on different roles over a 24 hours cycle; for example, the Central Business District is used for more than just office work. In general we want connected, compact communities, for a livable city, applying mixed-use concepts and strategies for housing affordability, and offering different typologies for different housing needs.
To this end we need affordable and livable housing together with new flexible typologies for inner-city living. Housing typologies need to deal with demographic changes. We have to understand migration and diversity as both an opportunity and a challenge. Mixed land uses are particularly important as it helps reduce traffic. Master plans should require all private developments to contain 40 to 50 per cent of public social housing, and have it integrated with private housing.
Higher densities should centre on green TODs. By integrating a diverse range of economic and cultural activities, we avoid mono-functional projects, which generate a higher demand for mobility. Green businesses would be supported through the use of ethical investments to generate funding.
The question is: how specific or adaptable should buildings be to their use? Which strategies can be applied to grow food locally in gardens, on roof tops and on small spaces in the city? The sustainable city makes provision for adequate land for food production in the city, a return to the community and to the allotment gardens of past days, where roof gardens become an urban market garden.
Transport Survey Methods: Best Practice for Decision Making - Google книги
It is essential that we bridge the urban-rural disconnect and move cities towards models that deal in natural eco-systems and healthy food systems. Buying and consuming locally will be necessary to cut down on petrol-based transport. Such things as re-using paper bags and glass containers, paper recycling and the cost of food processing will need reconsideration. We will need to reduce our consumption of meat and other animal products, especially shipped-in beef, as the meat cycle is very intensive in terms of energy and water consumption and herds create methane and demand great quantities of electricity.
Perhaps as much as 50 per cent of our food will need to be organically produced, without the use of fertilizers or pesticides made from oil, and grown in local allotments. This is the nature of sustainable cities. However, each city has its own distinct environment, whether it be by the sea, a river, in a dessert, a mountain; whether its climate is tropical, arid, temperate, etc, each situation is unique.
The design of the city will take all these factors into consideration, including materials, history and population desires. The essence of place is the up-swelling of grassroots strategies, the protection of its built heritage and the maintenance of a distinct cultural identity, e. New ideas require affordable and flexible studio space in historic buildings and warehouses. Cities will grow according to the details and unique qualities of localities, demographic qualities of the populace and the creativity of the authorities and citizens.
The aim of a city is to support the health, the activities and the safety of its residents. It is, therefore, incumbent on city councils to protect the city by developing a master plan that balances heritage with conservation and development; fostering distinctive places with a strong sense of place, where densities are high enough to support basic public transit and walk-to retail services. Which networks and skills can be activated and utilized through engaging the local community and key stakeholders, to ensure sustainable outcomes?
It has to provide efficient public transport, good public space and affordable housing, high standards of urban management, and without political support change will not happen. City councils need strong management and political support for their urban visions to be realized. They need strong support for a strategic direction in order to manage sustainability through coherent combined management and governance approaches, which include evolutionary and adaptive policies linked to a balanced process of review, and to public authorities overcoming their own unsustainable consumption practices and changing their methods of urban decision-making.
A city that leads and designs holistically, that implements change harmoniously, and where decision-making and responsibility is shared with the empowered citizenry, is a city that is on the road to sustainable practices. At the same time it is important to avoid biases, such as road conditions, when choosing locations. Group discussions are particularly useful if the information required is not expected to vary widely between households. If the issue under discussion is not too sensitive in nature, a group interview may provide an easy overview of likely variables, such as field sizes or crop yields.
In order to avoid being misled by rumour, myth or gossip, it is essential to support and cross-check findings by direct observation of important indicators. Two major categories of informal participatory appraisal methods that are particularly useful for gathering general socio-economic information about a demonstration area in the early stages of the pilot phase are semi-structured interviewing with checklists, and mapping and diagramming.
Two more focused methods involve surveys of farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices and stakeholders' analysis. Finally, quantitative survey methods are sometimes needed to complement the more informal participatory methods. Semi-structured interviewing with checklists Semi-structured interviewing is a form of guided interviewing in which only some of the questions are predetermined and new questions are usually generated during the interview. Interviewers use a checklist of questions as a flexible guide rather than a formal questionnaire. As a result, the interviews tend to take the form of discussions, during which both interviewer and interviewee learn from each other.
It is important that farmers participate on an equal footing during the information-gathering process, otherwise their participation during the later stages of the demonstration phase is likely to be undermined. Each survey team should establish its own checklists depending upon what data the team considers necessary. Checklists should not be long and unwieldy.
It is often better to concentrate on a number of key issues only, but cover these well. Box II. Mapping and diagramming A diagram is any simple schematic device which presents information in a condensed and readily understandable visual form. It is a simplified model of reality. Diagrams summarize data in a way that can be used at all stages of the SPFS.
They are most useful as an aid to participatory discussions with farmers and other community members in demonstrations. Diagrams can be drawn on almost anything - for example, on paper, overhead transparencies, blackboards or sand, depending on the situation. It is important to draw the diagrams in the presence of different categories of people women and men, young and old, etc.
Comparison of the diagrams drawn by different people can lead to a deeper understanding of the diversity of opinion and decision-making processes in a community. They are a useful way to gain understanding of systems at different levels: individual fields, farms, communities or districts. When villagers draw maps they include the features that they feel are most important.
For this reason, different stakeholder groups will often draw maps of the same area that look very different. As a result, mapping can be a good way to gain insight into the priorities of stakeholders, conflicts of interest, and possible opportunities. There are many equally valid ways to produce a map with a group of villagers. Before beginning the exercise it is important to draw up a checklist of the major features that the map should include.
Groups should generally not be too large no more than 15 for this exercise. The location should also be reasonably peaceful and free from distractions. The most common combinations are: - sticks, stones, leaves, etc. For example, ground doesn't have edges but it may be rained on, chalk is easy to rub out and re-draw but there may not be a cement floor available, paper is easy to keep after the map is finished but making changes on paper is difficult.
The best choice will depend on the particular circumstances in a village. For more detailed information on drawing different kinds of maps, see Bonnal, J. Rossi principal authors.
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Rutwara, F. Walker and C. Transects are particularly useful when there is a range of land use systems in one community. This is often the case when communities are located on the coast, in hilly areas, on rivers or lakes, or in areas where soils vary over short distances.
It is very important to keep one's eyes open during the walk. The first step in preparing for a transect walk is to draw up a check list of the areas of main interest for the exercise. It does not have to be a straight line, but it should not be random. It should be chosen to pass through the main land use systems. It may be best to use a route that brings the team back to where it started, or it may need to start beside a river or the sea and move up-hill to the edge of a watershed.
Sometimes several short transects give a better overall picture than one long one. Recording is quite difficult during a transect because the team members are walking and because the whole check list needs to be covered each time a new land use system is traversed.
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Stopping on the way when interesting issues arise is important. It is also useful to divide up responsibilities among the team members. For example, one may take responsibility to ask about crops, another about land tenure and so on.
The diagram should be prepared as soon as possible after the walk is completed. The rough topography of the walk should be drawn at the top and a matrix with the headings of the check list laid out underneath. If possible, villagers should be involved in the preparation of the diagram. In any case, it is important to show the diagram to groups of villagers and use it as a basis of discussion on what the team has learned.
It will help focus the discussion and enable team members to probe further on the fanning systems, the severity of constraints and the degree of consensus amongst villagers. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Practical Experiences, op. One diagram can include several different variables. There are many types of calendars and many uses. They are an excellent way of understanding and discovering variations in behaviour through time and their relationship to other events. Seasonal analysis is particularly useful for understanding constraints and major problems that might emerge only at certain times of the year.
A checklist should be prepared of the variables to be included in the calendar and any associated issues to be discussed about each of them. It is important to identify participants who represent the group you wish to consult. They should be prepared in the shade in a comfortable spot.
These should be used for the diagram. If seasons differ in length, then they should occupy roughly proportionate lengths on the horizontal axis.