In the Beginning: An Examination of Worldwide Creation Mythology (Mythology of the World Book 1)
This hubbub has sometimes reached a volume which has almost drowned out other explanatory voices. He has long maintained that most of the significant innovations and social systems in Africa are the result of Indian influences — a perspective which has led him to argue that the Mpumalanga stone-walled sites are Hindu temples and that the Indian Forgotten World settlers who worshipped in them lived in nearby shelters or caves.
They interacted with local San people and gave rise to the Quena KhoeKhoe , who continued to live in the area until they were displaced by African farming communities in the last millennium. He further claims that the first Bantu speakers came to Mpumalanga as slaves of the Indian or Quena gold traders and that the BaPedi were the descendants of mixing between the Indian traders and these slaves, who acquired their technological knowledge of metalworking from their Indian lineage but were not as culturally advanced in it their Indian ancestors.
According to him, Indians introduced metalworking to southern Africa some time before AD or He argues that the sites are ancient observatories. These interpretations have proliferated and diversified but most of them are based on speculation rather than credible evidence and share the key assumption that African society was incapable of innovation without decisive external influences.
This idea often goes hand in hand with the belief that Africans did not build with stone and lived semi-nomadic lives practising slash and burn farming — which was antithetical to the enduring structures and settlements which blanketed the Mpumalanga escarpment. It is a belief that forms a recent addition to a much older and wider literature which has invoked outsiders, and even aliens, to explain the existence of dramatic sites in Africa, including Great Zimbabwe and the pyramids.
Stone walled settlements Google Maps.
Stone walled settlements from above Google Maps. But it was not until that EC van Hoepen, who was based at the National Museum in Bloemfontein, published the first comprehensive investigation into the stone-walled sites.
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He concluded that they were built by black Africans, probably the ancestors of Pedi and Ndzundza groups who lived in the region, and he did not entertain the suggestion that they might have been built by non-Africans. His interpretation followed on his examination of the stone walls and the complete range of material culture found at the sites.
He mapped ruined homesteads, recorded engravings and removed several engraved rocks to the National Museum in Bloemfontein. After , as apartheid transformed the intellectual landscape, pre-colonial African farmer archaeology was all but abandoned. The next substantial research programme on these sites was only initiated in the early s, by the archaeologist Revil Mason of the University of the Witwatersrand Wits. A central aspect of his research consisted of plotting the distribution of stone- walled sites based on aerial photographs, and he identified 1 stone-walled sites in the region.
This mapping provided the first glimpse into the regional distribution of the Mpumalanga stone-walled ruins. Mike Evers, a lecturer in the department, made an intensive aerial photographic survey of the area between Lydenburg and Machadodorp while Dave Collett, then a Master's student who later did a DPhil at Cambridge University, looked more closely into the site-specific features.
He concluded that the complex enclosures found at sites were cattle enclosures at the centres of homesteads, and that the simple stone ruins, which are randomly located in settlements, were used for small stock.
The sphericity of the globe was not in question. Darwinists have for decades argued that since modern science has demonstrated the truth of Darwinian evolution, Darwin critics today display a level of ignorance and simplistic thinking similar to the people in the past who believed in a flat earth. The flat-earth myth largely remained in the realm of fiction until after Darwin published his Origin of Species in Russell documented that the flat-earth myth was appropriated in the second half of the 19 th century in a very successful attempt to discredit creationists. To discredit their critics Darwinists needed support, and since the evidence for the creation of all life by natural means was non-existent then other means were sought.
The few writings of those who claimed the Church suppressed science, especially the flat-earth claims, were exploited by the foes of creationism. Both Draper and White relied heavily on Cosmas Indicopleustes to support their claim that the Church widely accepted flat-earth cosmology. University of California at Santa Barbara Professor of History, Jeffrey Burton Russell, has effectively shown the arguments of both Draper and White were totally without merit in his now-classic study of the affair. Russell also examined a large selection of textbooks and found those written before usually included the correct account, but most textbooks written after uncritically repeated the erroneous claims in Irving, Draper and White.
Russell concludes that Irving, Draper and White were the main writers responsible for introducing the erroneous flat-earth myth that is still with us today. The late Harvard professor, Stephen Jay Gould, concluded from a study of their writings that the main goal of both Draper and White was to discredit Christians who opposed Darwinism.
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White, a disgruntled former Episcopalian, was a University of Michigan Professor and later became president of Cornell University. In the United Kingdom, it was reprinted twenty-one times in fifteen years, and was translated worldwide. Their argument was, just as the Church foolishly opposed the science proving that the earth was round, Christians are likewise making the same mistake today by opposing Darwinism.
The flat-earth myth was created by intellectuals in their attempt to discredit Darwin sceptics.
It's time to bust the myth that Africa doesn't produce scientific innovators
This ploy indicates the lack of persuasive scientific evidence for Darwinism that existed at that time in history. Available in Slovak and Russian. We have supplied this link to an article on an external website in good faith. But we cannot assume responsibility for, nor be taken as endorsing in any way, any other content or links on any such site.
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Even the article we are directing you to could, in principle, change without notice on sites we do not control. Also Available in:. This article is from Journal of Creation 22 2 —, August Browse our latest digital issue Subscribe. Flat earth leader is an evolutionist! Related Media. References Faulkner, D. Return to text. Dennett, D. Schadewald, R. Schadewald, ref. Whiting, J. Gardner, M. Garwood, C. Cohen, D. Science Digest , pp. Johnson, C.
Letter to author dated January 1. Day, R. Garwood, ref. Jelf, M. R-4, 18 November Gates, D. Anonymous, The flat earthers, Newsweek , p. Roe, J. Detroit Free Press :1B, Pigliucci, M. Enuma Elish: Babylonian Creation One of the very oldest creation myths we have documented in its ancient form is Enuma Elish, the Babylonian creation story. Here I write at some length about its content and how to interpret it, especially its introductory part in which the world is created and the gods have their initial battle for sovereignity. It is a theme that can be recognized in many other creation myths.
In Enuma Elish, the babylonian god Marduk defeats the gods of old, inherited from neighboring cultures, including the divine couple making the world appear when they join. The Paradox of Origin - Rig Veda Every creation myth wrestles with the same problem as science does, when it comes to how the world began: What was before it? Rig Veda, the ancient collection of hymns from India, also speculates about it - with thoughts that are perfectly relevant to us today as well.
It's in the famous hymn Rig Veda , which ends in what almost seems like a joke. Insoluble Solitude - Xingu Creation of Man The Xingu Indians in Brazil seem not to have a myth about the world creation, or it has not yet been revealed by the anthropologists. But they do have other emergence myths. Here is the one about the birth of man, which is quite a sad story. The Meanings of Mythology How to understand and explain myth and fable?
Here are the major theories through the centuries about the meanings of mythology. The Logics of Myth The basic patterns and structures of myths in general, and creation myths in particular. Discussion on what constitutes a myth and what the rules are for its form and content.
The Connection Between Stereotypes and Myths
Six criteria are used to decide what is and what is not a myth, and these criteria also define the necessary structure of it. There are two kinds of myth: explanatory like creation myths and adventures mainly hero stories. As for the former, there are additional rules regarding dramaturgy and time-space dimensions. Jung on myths and their origins.