TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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  1. European Tourism 2018 – Trends & Prospects (Q1/2018)
  2. Table of contents
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  4. Croatia: Tourism as a pillar of the economy
  5. Tourism industry in the new Europe: trends, policies and challenges

This 3,year old city sets an example for how reconstruction and tourism development can mutually reinforce one other.

European Tourism 2018 – Trends & Prospects (Q1/2018)

They drove the country into a recession that lasted for six years. The gross domestic product GDP only began to grow again in The number of overnight stays in Croatia increased by over 30 percent over this period. Among them were over two million holidaymakers from Germany — a rise of 6. This makes them the numerically largest contingent. This growth is good. The travel industry alone generated around 18 percent of the GDP. Tourism also creates jobs in the process.

If we take into account the positive effects on other sectors, such as agriculture, tourism provides an income for , people — which equates to every fourth job. The forecast looks bright thanks to further investment. Around million euros should flow into the tourism sector in The number of visitors has risen continuously for a decade. This means that tourism remained a growth sector — and an important pillar of support — despite the recession. The TUI Group is a key partner in tourism development.

Moreover, hundreds of thousands of tourists will use the comprehensive travel options offered by TUI in Croatia in Analysis shows the SGI integration in the Alpine Space is moderate, mostly occurring among health, telecommunication, social care, and basic goods sectors. Adapting the existing spatial planning policies could bridge the identified gaps, as some examined documents e. Since the Barca Report to the European Union in , endogenous potentials have been firmly on the European Union agenda, streamlined by various policies related to territorial development.


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At the end of the current EU programming period — , this chapter discusses how such place-based potentials are conceptualised and used, particularly in the local and regional context. In doing so, this chapter focuses on the situation of places characterised as non-agglomeration, post- industrial regions in Central Europe, often situated in the spatial peripheries and also outside the main academic focus.

The analysis highlights governance issues and the valorisation of endogenous development potentials by different policy levels, discussing agenda setting and implementation. The cases highlight challenges in the current development of such regions, give examples for the identification and utilisation of endogenous potentials, and discuss lessons learned from this locally led development approach.

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Additionally, different governance modes are discussed and used to illustrate different agenda setting in regard to endogenous potentials. As a result, the authors argue that utilising potentials is streamlined top-down via various policy frameworks, which are in turn mediated by local and regional governance settings, adapting and translating these programmes into practical, regional and local actions, and thereby creating important learning effects for the regions.

Largely missing societal awareness about the potential of spatial planning for contributing to greater energy efficiency was identified alongside quite generally approached energy efficiency targets in the plans. The steps claimed urgent in the planning field are to: explicitly define the energy-related aspects addressed and the ways of integrating them into strategic planning documents; better communicate the topic with all the stakeholders in the urban process; and insist for broader support in building relevant institutional and expert capacity for monitoring and evaluating planning results with respect to social, economic, and environmental benefits for local communities.

Market participants need a variety of relevant market data for purchases and sales decisions. The higher the degree of information is, the more market transparency exists. Land value is one of the most important indicators and is often used to represent the location. Based on the knowledge of public valuation expert committees, information for determining land values is highly dependent on purchasing price data in Germany. Nevertheless, project developers are aware of the fact that land values represent only part of the location.

Hence, land values are also affected by further representative characteristics, which reflect location within a territory. Different criteria like economic situation or social conditions are the focus of consideration. However, great difficulties are caused by the complexity of the available data. Furthermore, not all valuation experts use the same methods of calculation and weighting.

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A consistent method of determining land values nationwide for all locations improves market transparency. Providing a comprehensive decision-making basis for all market participants and the public sector enables the optimal management of spatial developments. The practical implication of the concept is illustrated using the case of Germany. Territorial governance enables territorial development, moving away from sectorial approaches, towards place-based and highly adaptable models. Most territorial governance studies take a socio-institutional, or spatial planning perspective.

Still, territorial governance happens in and through other policy domains, interacting among them and with the territory in various ways, to produce territorial development. The sustainability of the latter is affected by the presence of collective action and socio-ecological resilience, best seen through the study of socio-ecological interactions. Resilience of forest commons as resources and as institutions leads the society towards sustainable territorial development at local and global scales.

The illustration of this account comes through exploring the Albanian model of forest commons within a river basin. The model embodies all ecosystem values besides the merely utilitarian ones and discusses the dimensions of territorial governance for forest commons. It does so through fit-to-context factors for robustness and adaptability. Spatial planning is a set of managerial activities focused on support and protection of sustainability in spatial development across different scales.

The role of planners is recently dramatically changing from the position of the designers of the future towards the mediators and leaders of the development processes as post modern spatial planning has to deal intensively with immaterial and qualitative variables and phenomena like community, identity, place, social behaviour, or human values.


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  4. The character of planning culture is determined by the value system, which is reflected in the acting, communication, and leadership patterns. Understanding of cultural dynamics, the ability to develop a clear vision of the desired planning culture based on the democratic leadership and its active fostering should be an essential competence of any planner. Recent global development has highlighted the need for special attention dedicated to these issues especially in the context of territorial fixing of the mobile capital.

    Croatia: Tourism as a pillar of the economy

    It has been shown that highly profiled planning cultures based on the active leadership generating typical set of principles, values, and approaches play an important role in the spatial development of any territory. Moreover, planning culture significantly shapes not only territorial and spatial processes, but also the dynamics of the entire society.

    Analysis of the past has often shown that especially planning cultures based upon the authoritarian and beaurocratic leadership failed in the process of dealing with challenges of high complexity. This contribution introduces fundamental theoretical and methodological models of planning cultures and tries to investigate and define specific features and characteristics of Central European planning culture, including the field of leadership. Many cities of Central and Eastern Europe beyond their booming metropolitan hubs are suffering from stagnation, declining populations and poor economic development.

    At the same time, these cities frequently possess a rich cultural heritage, which, at a time of digital transformation and congested urban centres, can be an asset in the fight to regain economic competitiveness. Often, however, existing building stock does not meet current residential or commercial needs. Coordination between the public and private sectors, as well as within the public sector, is needed to resolve the conflicting aims of preserving cultural heritage and ensuring local economic development.

    The present chapter explains this tool and discusses some initial experiences. This chapter addresses the role of bottom up innovation to support sustainable local development, in particular in local tourism development as a priority sector for economic development in Western Balkan countries. The case study presented in this chapter is about social innovation for sustainable tourism in a small town in Albania, namely Gramsh.

    Tourism industry in the new Europe: trends, policies and challenges

    As the findings suggest, sustainable tourism can be developed in peripheral territories with typical problems like high rate of unemployment, lack of infrastructure, emigration, lack of investments, and rather weak local government. Bottom up driven tourism innovation strengthens the endogenous development potential.

    Such an approach fosters local identity formation and self-identification of the citizens with their own territory and local resources. It is studied through the social network theory, analysing the processes of community organisation aimed at tourism destination development and promotion. The local authority should augment such processes through the provision of the necessary strategic framework, including a shared vision, in order to harvest all benefits. The experiment in Gramsh can now be further elaborated into a model that other small towns can adopt too.