The Deification (The California Quartet Book 1)
One objection which would soon take on ever greater importance, was that critical thought must adopt the standpoint of the oppressed, to which Adorno replied that negative dialectics was concerned "with the dissolution of standpoint thinking itself. At the time of Negative Dialectics ' publication, the fragility of West German democracy led to increasing student protests. Monopolistic trends in the media, an educational crisis in the universities, the Shah of Iran's state visit, German support for the war in Vietnam and the emergency laws combined to create a highly unstable situation.
Like many of his students, Adorno too opposed the emergency laws , as well as the war in Vietnam, which, he said, proved the continued existence of the "world of torture that had begun in Auschwitz". This death, as well as the subsequent acquittal of the responsible officer, were both commented upon in Adorno's lectures. As politicization increased, rifts developed within both the Institute's relationship with its students as well as within the Institute itself.
Soon Adorno himself would become an object of the students' ire. After a group of students marched to the lectern, unfurling a banner that read "Berlin's left-wing fascists greet Teddy the Classicist," a number of those present left the lecture in protest after Adorno refused to abandon his talk in favour of discussing his attitude on the current political situation. But as progressed, Adorno became increasingly critical of the students' disruptions to university life.
His isolation was only compounded by articles published in the magazine alternative , which, following the lead of Hannah Arendt 's articles in Merkur , claimed Adorno had subjected Benjamin to pressure during his years of exile in Berlin and compiled Benjamin's Writings and Letters with a great deal of bias. In response, Benjamin's longtime friend Gershom Scholem , wrote to the editor of Merkur to express his disapproval of the "in part, shameful, not to say disgraceful" remarks by Arendt.
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Relations between students and the West German state continued deteriorating. In spring , a prominent SDS spokesman, Rudi Dutschke , was gunned down in the streets; in response, massive demonstrations took place, directed in particular against the Springer Press , which had led a campaign to vilify the students. An open appeal published in Die Zeit , signed by Adorno, called for an inquiry into the social reasons that gave rise to this assassination attempt as well as an investigation into the Springer Press' manipulation of public opinion. At the same time, however, Adorno protested against disruptions of his own lectures and refused to express his solidarity with their political goals, maintaining instead his autonomy as a theoretician.
Adorno rejected the so-called unity of theory and praxis advocated by the students and argued that the students' actions were premised upon a mistaken analysis of the situation. The building of barricades, he wrote to Marcuse, is "ridiculous against those who administer the bomb. Upon his return to Frankfurt, events prevented his concentrating upon the book on aesthetics he wished to write: "Valid student claims and dubious actions," he wrote to Marcuse, "are all so mixed up together that all productive work and even sensible thought are scarcely possible any more.
Adorno began writing an introduction to a collection of poetry by Rudolf Borchardt, which was connected with a talk entitled "Charmed Language," delivered in Zurich, followed by a talk on aesthetics in Paris where he met Beckett again.
Beginning in October , Adorno took up work on Aesthetic Theory. In June he completed Catchwords: Critical Models. During the winter semester of —69 Adorno was on sabbatical leave from the university and thus able to dedicate himself to the completion of his book of aesthetics. For the summer semester Adorno planned a lecture course entitled "An Introduction to Dialectical Thinking," as well as a seminar on the dialectics of subject and object. But at the first lecture Adorno's attempt to open up the lecture and invite questions whenever they arose degenerated into a disruption from which he quickly fled: after a student wrote on the blackboard "If Adorno is left in peace, capitalism will never cease," three women students approached the lectern, bared their breasts and scattered flower petals over his head.
After further disruptions to his lectures, Adorno canceled the lectures for the rest of the seminar, continuing only with his philosophy seminar. In the summer of , weary from these activities, Adorno returned once again to Zermatt, Switzerland , at the foot of Matterhorn to restore his strength. On August 6 he died of a heart attack. Adorno's work sets out from a central insight he shares with all early 20th century avant-garde art: the recognition of what is primitive in ourselves and the world itself. Neither Picasso 's fascination with African sculpture nor Mondrian 's reduction of painting to its most elementary component—the line—is comprehensible outside this concern with primitivism Adorno shared with the century's most radical art.
At that time, the Western world, beset by world-wars, colonialist consolidation and accelerating commodification , sank into the very barbarism civilization had prided itself in overcoming. According to Adorno, society's self-preservation had become indistinguishable from societally sanctioned self-sacrifice: of "primitive" peoples, primitive aspects of the ego and those primitive, mimetic desires found in imitation and sympathy. Adorno's theory proceeds from an understanding of this primitive quality of reality which seeks to counteract whatever aims either to repress this primitive aspect or to further those systems of domination set in place by this return to barbarism.
From this perspective, Adorno's writings on politics, philosophy, music and literature are a lifelong critique of the ways in which each tries to justify self-mutilation as the necessary price of self-preservation. According to Adorno's translator Robert Hullot-Kentor, the central motive of Adorno's work thus consists in determining "how life could be more than the struggle for self-preservation".
Adorno, along with the other major Frankfurt School theorists Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse , argued that advanced capitalism had managed to contain or liquidate the forces that would bring about its collapse and that the revolutionary moment, when it would have been possible to transform it into socialism, had passed. As he put it at the beginning of his Negative Dialectics , philosophy is still necessary because the time to realise it was missed.
Adorno argued that capitalism had become more entrenched through its attack on the objective basis of revolutionary consciousness and through liquidation of the individualism that had been the basis of critical consciousness. Adorno, as well as Horkheimer, critiqued all forms of positivism as responsible for technocracy and disenchantment and sought to produce a theory that both rejected positivism and avoided reinstating traditional metaphysics. Adorno and Horkheimer have been criticized for over-applying the term "positivism," especially in their interpretations of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper as positivists.
Adorno criticized jazz and popular music , viewing it as part of the culture industry , that contributes to the present sustainability of capitalism by rendering it "aesthetically pleasing" and "agreeable". In his early essays for the Vienna-based journal Anbruch , Adorno claimed that musical progress is proportional to the composer's ability to constructively deal with the possibilities and limitations contained within what Adorno called the "musical material.
The objective validity of composition, according to Adorno, rests with neither the composer's genius nor the work's conformity with prior standards, but with the way in which the work coherently expresses the dialectic of the material. In this sense, the contemporary absence of composers of the status of Bach or Beethoven is not the sign of musical regression; instead, new music is to be credited with laying bare aspects of the musical material previously repressed: The musical material's liberation from number, the harmonic series and tonal harmony.
Thus, historical progress is achieved only by the composer who "submits to the work and seemingly does not undertake anything active except to follow where it leads. In the face of this radical liberation of the musical material, Adorno came to criticize those who, like Stravinsky, withdrew from this freedom by taking recourse to forms of the past as well as those who turned twelve-tone composition into a technique which dictated the rules of composition.
Adorno saw the culture industry as an arena in which critical tendencies or potentialities were eliminated. He argued that the culture industry, which produced and circulated cultural commodities through the mass media, manipulated the population. Popular culture was identified as a reason why people become passive; the easy pleasures available through consumption of popular culture made people docile and content, no matter how terrible their economic circumstances.
He wrote that "the same thing is offered to everybody by the standardized production of consumption goods" but this is concealed under "the manipulation of taste and the official culture's pretense of individualism". Consumers purchase the illusion that every commodity or product is tailored to the individual's personal preference, by incorporating subtle modifications or inexpensive "add-ons" in order to keep the consumer returning for new purchases, and therefore more revenue for the corporation system.
Adorno conceptualized this phenomenon as pseudo-individualisation and the always-the-same. Adorno's analysis allowed for a critique of mass culture from the left which balanced the critique of popular culture from the right. From both perspectives—left and right—the nature of cultural production was felt to be at the root of social and moral problems resulting from the consumption of culture.
However, while the critique from the right emphasized moral degeneracy ascribed to sexual and racial influences within popular culture, Adorno located the problem not with the content, but with the objective realities of the production of mass culture and its effects, e.
Guided Timed Writing
The latter has become a particularly productive, yet highly contested term in cultural studies. Many of Adorno's reflections on aesthetics and music have only just begun to be debated, as a collection of essays on the subject, many of which had not previously been translated into English, has only recently been collected and published as Essays on Music.
Adorno's work in the years before his death was shaped by the idea of "negative dialectics", set out especially in his book of that title. A key notion in the work of the Frankfurt School since Dialectic of Enlightenment had been the idea of thought becoming an instrument of domination that subsumes all objects under the control of the dominant subject, especially through the notion of identity, i. Indeed, Adorno sought to ground the critical bite of his sociological work in his critique of identity, which he took to be a reification in thought of the commodity form or exchange relation which always presumes a false identity between different things.
The potential to criticise arises from the gap between the concept and the object, which can never go into the former without remainder. This gap, this non-identity in identity, was the secret to a critique of both material life and conceptual reflection. Adorno's reputation as a musicologist has been in steady decline since his death. His sweeping criticisms of jazz and championing of the Second Viennese School in opposition to Stravinsky have caused him to fall out of favour.
The distinguished American scholar Richard Taruskin  declared Adorno to be "preposterously over-rated. He may have championed Schoenberg, but the composer notably failed to return the compliment: "I have never been able to bear the fellow [ Adorno states that a start to understand the recognition in respect of any particular song hit may be made by drafting a scheme which divides the experience of recognition into its different components.
All the factors people enumerate are interwoven to a degree that would be impossible to separate from one another in reality. Adorno's scheme is directed towards the different objective elements involved in the experience of recognition, than the actual experience felt for the individual. Adorno posits social totality as an automatic system. For him it was existent, but inhuman. The phenomenon of standardization is "a concept used to characterize the formulaic products of capitalist-driven mass media and mass culture that appeal to the lowest common denominator in pursuit of maximum profit".
Mass media is employed to deliver messages about products and services to consumers in order to convince these individuals to purchase the commodity they are advertising. Standardization consists of the production of large amounts of commodities to then pursue consumers in order to gain the maximum profit possible. They do this, as mentioned above, by individualizing products to give the illusion to consumers that they are in fact purchasing a product or service that was specifically designed for them.
Adorno highlights the issues created with the construction of popular music, where different samples of music used in the creation of today's chart-topping songs are put together in order to create, re-create, and modify numerous tracks by using the same variety of samples from one song to another.
He makes a distinction between "Apologetic music" and "Critical music". Apologetic music is defined as the highly produced and promoted music of the "pop music" industry: music that is composed of variable parts and interchanged to create several different songs. Serious music, according to Adorno, achieves excellence when its whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The example he gives is that of Beethoven's symphonies: "[his] greatness shows itself in the complete subordination of the accidentally private melodic elements to the form as a whole.
Standardization not only refers to the products of the culture industry but to the consumers as well: many times every day consumers are bombarded by media advertising. Consumers are pushed and shoved into consuming products and services presented to them by the media system. The masses have become conditioned by the culture industry, which makes the impact of standardization much more important. By not realizing the impact of social media and commercial advertising, the individual is caught in a situation where conformity is the norm.
As a pioneer of a self-reflexive sociology who prefigured Bourdieu 's ability to factor in the effect of reflection on the societal object, Adorno realized that some criticism including deliberate disruption of his classes in the s could never be answered in a dialogue between equals if, as he seems to have believed, what the naive ethnographer or sociologist thinks of a human essence is always changing over time. As Adorno believed that sociology needs to be self-reflective and self-critical, he also believed that the language the sociologist uses, like the language of the ordinary person, is a political construct in large measure that uses, often unreflectingly, concepts installed by dominant classes and social structures such as our notion of "deviance" which includes both genuinely deviant individuals and "hustlers" operating below social norms because they lack the capital to operate above: for an analysis of this phenomenon, cf.
Pierre Bourdieu 's book The Weight of the World. He felt that those at the top of the Institute needed to be the source primarily of theories for evaluation and empirical testing, as well as people who would process the "facts" discovered One example of the clash of intellectual culture and Adorno's methods can be found in Paul Lazarsfeld , the American sociologist for whom Adorno worked in the late s after fleeing Hitler. Lazarsfeld, however, had trouble both with the prose style of the work Adorno handed in and what Lazarsfeld thought was Adorno's "lack of discipline in What I mean by reified consciousness, I can illustrate—without elaborate philosophical contemplation—most simply with an American experience.
Among the frequently changing colleagues which the Princeton Project provided me with, was a young lady. After a few days, she had gained confidence in me, and asked most kindly: "Dr Adorno, would you mind a personal question? I said, "It depends on the question, but just go ahead", and she went on: "Please tell me: are you an extrovert or an introvert?
It was as if she, as a living being, already thought according to the model of multi-choice questions in questionnaires. While even German readers can find Adorno's work difficult to understand, an additional problem for English readers is that his German idiom is particularly difficult to translate into English. A similar difficulty of translation is true of Hegel , Heidegger , and a number of other German philosophers and poets.
As a result, some early translators tended toward over-literalness. In recent years, Edmund Jephcott and Stanford University Press have published new translations of some of Adorno's lectures and books, including Introduction to Sociology , Problems of Moral Philosophy and his transcribed lectures on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Aristotle's "Metaphysics", and a new translation of the Dialectic of Enlightenment.
Hullot-Kentor is also currently working on a new translation of Negative Dialectics. These fresh translations are slightly less literal in their rendering of German sentences and words, and are more accessible to English readers. Olick and Andrew J. Perrin on Harvard University Press, along with introductory material explaining its relation to the rest of Adorno's work and 20th-century public opinion research.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German philosopher and sociologist, — For the surname, see Adorno surname. Visp , Valais , Switzerland. Continental philosophy Frankfurt School critical theory Western Marxism. Criticism of actionism left-wing anti-intellectualism  Criticism of the " culture industry "   .
Reviews of Jack Remick’s Novels
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- The RudderHaven Science Fiction and Fantasy Anthology I.
But don't let that worry you. I don't know if I'll race out to get book two when it's published and I'm okay with that because this one has left me satisfied. View 1 comment. Dec 11, Danika Dinsmore rated it it was amazing. A young poet's search for immortality and all the sad-beautiful-mad humans that are in and on, and at the end of, his path. It may be a book for artists and writers and poets and musicians. It's not going to be the book for everyone. There's a lot of rawness here and a lot of bodily fluids.
Sometimes I was in love and repelled at the same time - in a good way. I loved how it floated in and out of the real and surreal and metaphor like changing socks. The rhythm and voice are completely authentic A young poet's search for immortality and all the sad-beautiful-mad humans that are in and on, and at the end of, his path.
The rhythm and voice are completely authentic; I felt like a voyeur reading it, as if the writer himself were showing me his wounds.
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And most likely he was, because he's a poet. It is an homage to the Beat poets, and recreates contemporary versions of Kerouac and friends. It's also part of a quartet of books. Of the second book, reviewer Jodi Lea Stewart said, It is as though I have stepped back in time to the days when writing was truly an art form and not a scientific venture into so much of a percentage of dialogue vs. No worries as to whether or not an agent or editor or some "god" of the publishing world will approve or not approve I hope Jodi doesn't mind me borrowing her quote.
I honestly could not have put it better myself. Heartache is the perfect word, and it feels like I have to recover from the first heartache before I can read the next one. It's definitely a book I want to have time for, take my time with. Jan 27, Marie rated it it was amazing.
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Jack Remick writes about a journey through the center of the Beat Generation. Eddie skids along a twisted road of mind-bending drama where characters reek of the human condition in an era featuring drugs, sex and jazz. We watch his transform Jack Remick writes about a journey through the center of the Beat Generation.
We watch his transformation as he maneuvers his way through the underbelly of street life, a desperate yet cunning survivor. Does he make it? Jul 27, Priscilla Long rated it it was amazing. This saga of the road trip of would-be poet Eddie Iturbi from Sanger to San Francisco, from innocence to art, is fast, hot, thick, mythic, erudite, erotic, and intense. The prose is lush, the story, irresistible. Remick inscribes these vivid, gender-morphing characters on the California landscape as if they'd always been there.
I believe The Deification will be passed from hand to hand for a long time to come. Dec 28, Jim rated it it was ok. Disappointing, thinking there would be a lot revelations considering there was some pomp and circumstance with the author's genre, supposedly equaling that of Kerouac. Story often takes a left turn, so there is nothing boring about. And, never a happy ending. Sherry Decker rated it it was amazing Dec 02, Kim rated it it was ok Oct 13, Lauren rated it it was ok Apr 05, Matt Briggs rated it liked it Aug 19, Pamela rated it it was amazing Nov 30, Arleen Williams rated it it was amazing Feb 05, Mark Beezy rated it liked it Aug 02, Blacke Tales marked it as to-read Feb 03, Isla McKetta marked it as to-read Mar 03, Jan added it Mar 04, Les marked it as to-read Apr 01, Leslie marked it as to-read Apr 11, Kate Johnston marked it as to-read May 07, David marked it as to-read Jul 22, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
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