M. Théodore Mommsen (French Edition)
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Similarly unhelpful are the polemics quoted in Appendix B. Merolle essentially takes over the interpretation of Mommsen offered by Rebenich Merolle distinguishes between philosophical and political liberalism and demands that the historian set aside political views when he writes his work p.
Römische Geschichte — Band 3 by Theodor Mommsen - Free Ebook
Perhaps, but if so, it is unhistorical, in effect, to take Mommsen to task for being unacquainted with a discipline that was just emerging in his day. The leading idea of Chapter I. This is documented with various quotations, principally from Newton, Hume, and Adam Smith. Again, there is nothing particularly surprising here, and not enough space is devoted to analysis of the cited texts, or to discussion of the views of previous interpreters, to yield new insights. Chapter II is a rapid, mostly descriptive survey of recent work on Cicero.
But there is insufficient discrimination between what is important and what is less so or insight into trends of scholarship. There are various mistakes in transcribing German texts and translating from German to English e.
The Provinces of the Roman Empire
And it is surprising to see no reference to Polybius apropos of the mixed constitution pp. Mommsen quoted p. Rather, this can be shown, even at its most expansive, strictly to subserve the needs of his case. And the subtle interplay between characterization and argument in his dialogues is gradually coming to light.
He was also what we would call an excellent networker, with a highly ramified set of contacts known to us through his correspondence. These were his far from negligible political skills. Mommsen reproaches him for carrying out forensic tasks on behalf of the dynasts in the latter half of the 50s. Scholarship and political discourse promoting national symbols make strange bedfellows, the one pulling toward, the other away from greater nuance and subtlety.
It will be interesting to see whether Cicero will now finally rate a statue at the site of his former activity. His work regarding Roman history is still of fundamental importance for contemporary research.
He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in for being "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome ", after having been nominated by 18 members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. His works on Roman law and on the law of obligations had a significant impact on the German civil code. Mommsen was born to German parents in Garding in the Duchy of Schleswig in , then ruled by the king of Denmark, and grew up in Bad Oldesloe in Holstein , where his father was a Lutheran minister. He studied mostly at home, though he attended the gymnasium Christianeum in Altona for four years.
He studied Greek and Latin and received his diploma in Mommsen studied jurisprudence at Kiel from to , finishing his studies with the degree of Doctor of Roman Law. During this time he was the roommate of Theodor Storm , who was later to become a renowned poet. Together with Mommsen's brother Tycho, the three friends even published a collection of poems Liederbuch dreier Freunde.
Thanks to a royal Danish grant, Mommsen was able to visit France and Italy to study preserved classical Roman inscriptions. During the revolution of he worked as a war correspondent in then-Danish Rendsburg , supporting the German annexation of Schleswig-Holstein and a constitutional reform. Having been forced to leave the country by the Danes, he became a professor of law in the same year at the University of Leipzig. When Mommsen protested against the new constitution of Saxony in , he had to resign.
However, the next year he obtained a professorship in Roman law at the University of Zurich and then spent a couple of years in exile. In he became a professor of law at the University of Breslau where he met Jakob Bernays. Mommsen became a research professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences in He later helped to create and manage the German Archaeological Institute in Rome.
In Mommsen was appointed a member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and he also became professor of Roman History at the University of Berlin in , where he held lectures up to He is one of the very few non-fiction writers to receive the Nobel prize in literature.
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Several old manuscripts were burnt to ashes, including Manuscript 0. Mommsen was an indefatigable worker who rose at five to do research in his library. People often saw him reading whilst walking in the streets. Mommsen had sixteen children with his wife Marie daughter of the publisher and editor Karl Reimer of Leipzig. Their grandson Theodor Ernst Mommsen became a professor of medieval history in the United States. Mommsen published over 1, works, and effectively established a new framework for the systematic study of Roman history.
He pioneered epigraphy , the study of inscriptions in material artifacts. Although the unfinished History of Rome , written early in his career, has long been widely considered as his main work, the work most relevant today is perhaps the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum , a collection of Roman inscriptions he contributed to the Berlin Academy. A bibliography of over 1, of his works is given by Zangemeister in Mommsen als Schriftsteller ; continued by Jacobs, While he was secretary of the Historical-Philological Class at the Berlin Academy — , Mommsen organised countless scientific projects, mostly editions of original sources.
At the beginning of his career, when he published the inscriptions of the Neapolitan Kingdom , Mommsen already had in mind a collection of all known ancient Latin inscriptions. He received additional impetus and training from Bartolomeo Borghesi of San Marino. The complete Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum would consist of sixteen volumes.
Fifteen of them appeared in Mommsen's lifetime and he wrote five of them himself. The basic principle of the edition contrary to previous collections was the method of autopsy, according to which all copies i. Furthermore, he played an important role in the publication of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica , the edition of the texts of the Church Fathers , the Limes Romanus Roman frontiers research and countless other projects. Mommsen was a delegate to the Prussian House of Representatives from —66 and again from —79, and delegate to the Reichstag from —, at first for the liberal German Progress Party Deutsche Fortschrittspartei , later for the National Liberal Party , and finally for the Secessionists.
He was very concerned with questions about academic and educational policies and held national positions. Although he had supported German Unification , he was disappointed with the politics of the German Empire and he was quite pessimistic about its future. Mommsen strongly disagreed with Otto von Bismarck about social policies in , advising collaboration between Liberals and Social Democrats and using such strong language that he narrowly avoided prosecution. As a Liberal nationalist, Mommsen favored assimilation of ethnic minorities into German society, not exclusion.
Mommsen strongly opposed antisemitism and wrote a harsh pamphlet in which he denounced von Treitschke's views. In an letter to the Neue Freie Presse of Vienna , Mommsen called Czechs "apostles of barbarism" and wrote that "the Czech skull is impervious to reason, but it is susceptible to blows". Mark Twain was an honored guest, seated at the head table with some twenty 'particularly eminent professors'; and it was from this vantage point that he witnessed the following incident When apparently the last eminent guest had long ago taken his place, again those three bugle-blasts rang out, and once more the swords leaped from their scabbards.
Who might this late comer be? Nobody was interested to inquire.
Still, indolent eyes were turned toward the distant entrance, and we saw the silken gleam and the lifted sword of a guard of honor plowing through the remote crowds. Then we saw that end of the house rising to its feet; saw it rise abreast the advancing guard all along like a wave. This supreme honor had been offered to no one before.
Rose and shouted and stamped and clapped and banged the beer mugs. Just simply a storm! Then the little man with his long hair and Emersonian face edged his way past us and took his seat. I could have touched him with my hand—Mommsen! I would have walked a great many miles to get a sight of him, and here he was, without trouble or tramp or cost of any kind. Here he was clothed in a titanic deceptive modesty which made him look like other men. Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen 30 November — 1 November was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in for being "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome", after having been nominated by 18 members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Life Mommsen was born to German parents in Garding in the Duchy of Schleswig in , then ruled by the king of Denmark, and grew up in Bad Oldesloe in Holstein, where his father was a Lutheran minister.
He studied mostly at h. Retrieved A subsequent book was issued which concerned the provinces of the Roman Empire. Recently published was a further book on the Empire, reconstructed from lecture notes. The initial three volumes won widespread acclaim upon publication; indeed, "The Roman History made Mommsen famous in a day. The work was specifically cited when Mommsen was awarded the Nobel Prize. Genesis Theodor Mommsen in Writing the History followed Mommsen's earlier achievements in the study of ancient Rome. He had not himself designed to write a history, but the opportunity presented itself in The Mommsen family is a German family of influential historians.
Die Mommsens. Mommsen is a surname, and may refer to one of a family of German historians, see Mommsen family: Theodor Mommsen — , classical scholar, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature Hans Mommsen — , historian known for arguing a functionalist explanation of the Holocaust Wolfgang Mommsen — , historian of 19th- and 20th-century Britain and Germany Tycho Mommsen — Wilhelm Mommsen — Theodor Ernst Mommsen — See also Momsen especially Charles Momsen. Theodor is a masculine given name. It is a German form of Theodore.
It is also a variant of Teodor. Seuss Theodor W. Hans Mommsen 5 November — 5 November was a German historian, known for his studies in German social history, and for his functionalist interpretation of the Third Reich, especially for arguing that Hitler was a weak dictator. He was a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Life and career Mommsen was born in Marburg, the child of the historian Wilhelm Mommsen and great-grandson of the historian of Rome Theodor Mommsen. He died on 5 November It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity.
Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life and history. The Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements.
CIL also refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions. It was founded in by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. Aim The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically. The earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide r. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of German realism.
Life Storm was born in the small town of Husum, on the west coast of Schleswig, then a formally independent duchy ruled by the king of Denmark. From until his admission was revoked by Danish authorities in , he worked as a lawyer in his home town of Husum. In Storm moved to Potsdam, moving on to Heiligenstadt in Thuringia in He returned to Husum in after Schleswig had come under Prussian rule and became a district magistrate "Landvogt". In Storm moved to Hademarschen, where.
Retiarius vs Secutor, the two gladiators lying are dead, as signified by the theta nigrum The theta nigrum "black theta" or theta infelix "unlucky theta" is a symbol of death in Greek and Latin epigraphy. The term theta nigrum was coined by Theodor Mommsen, but It consists of a circle with a diagonal line. The Theta signified Thanatos, the Greek deity of death. A Dictionary of Latin Phrases. The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire.
It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD and there is no extant account of what happened to it. One theory per historian Theodor Mommsen was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after , the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain, perhaps during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule. This view was popularised by the novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia modern day Scotland , after which it was "never heard o.
Life He was born in Pacov, a small town in South Bohemia, then part of the Austrian Empire, but from the age of two he grew up in nearby Lukavec. Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco Auctoritas is a Latin word which is the origin of English "authority". While historically its use in English was restricted to discussions of the political history of Rome, the beginning of phenomenological philosophy in the 20th century expanded the use of the word.
In ancient Rome, Auctoritas referred to the general level of prestige a person had in Roman society, and, as a consequence, his clout, influence, and ability to rally support around his will. Auctoritas was not merely political, however; it had a numinous content and symbolized the mysterious "power of command" of heroic Roman figures.
Noble women could also achieve a degree of Auctoritas. For example, the wives, sisters, and mothers of the Julio-Claudians had immense influence on society, the masses, and the political apparatus. Their Auctoritas was exercised less overtly than their male counterparts due to Roman societal norms, but they were.
He was the twin brother of historian Hans Mommsen. In , he married Sabine von Schalburg, with whom he had four children. Mommsen wrote a biography of Max Weber in His main areas of expertise were in 19th centuryth century British and German history. His interests were wide-ranging and he wrote about diplomatic, social, intellectual, and economic history.
Mommsen championed a Sonderweg "special path" interpretation of G. History Madaurus was made a Roman colony at the end of the first century and was famous for its "schola". A colony of veterans was established there; it was called Colonia Flavia Augusta Veteranorum Madaurensium under emperor Nerva.
The city was fully Romanised in the fourth century, with a population of Christian Berbers, who spoke mainly Latin, according to Theodor Mommsen. There were three famous bishops of this diocese: Antigonus, who celebrated the Council of Carthage ; Placentius, who celebrated the Council of Carthage and Council of Carthage ; and Pudentius who was forced into exile, alongside others present at the Christian conference of Counci.