Short Stuff: A Compilation of 444 four-line poems

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One can infer from the larger passage that just as dew nourishes trees and flowers, so God will sustain and support Israel so the nation can thrive. In a separate context, when the prophet applies the same analogy to Israel, different associated commonplaces drive the comparison.

In Hosea , the clause "that early goes away" modifies the simile "like dew," thereby specifying what Israel has in common with dew: just as dew evaporates rather quickly, so Israel's loyalty to God is fleeting. When the same simile appears in Hos , the surrounding context confirms the accuracy of this reading.

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Morning clouds, dew, chaff, and smoke are all ephemeral, a characteristic that the prophet warns will be true for Israel as well. As these examples demonstrate, in many cases, the associated commonplaces are made clear by modifying phrases or the broader context; sometimes, however, analyzing the analogy requires a greater degree of conjecture and interpretative effort. Note that many of these examples involve metaphors or similes for God. Speaking about the divine naturally demands the use of metaphor or simile, for human beings can only attempt to articulate ideas about God by applying the known and the familiar.

For instance, in order to impress upon Israel God's commitment to comfort the exiles, God is pictured as a loving mother:. The wording of the simile makes it clear that comfort is the associated commonplace generating the comparison. The prophetic books in particular contain an array of analogies for God. In addition to those cited so far dew, shepherd, lion, parent , we find an abundance of metaphors, some drawn from the sphere of human relationships and others from the natural world and from other semantic domains relevant to the ancient Israelites, such as husband e.

David's tribute to Saul and Jonathan concludes with two phrases invoked to describe the deceased men:. In the first colon, literal language is used to characterize Saul and Jonathan. In the second, David communicates through figurative language, employing the image of abandoned armor to speak of the loss of Israel's military leaders. The phrase "how have the mighty fallen" is repeated two other times in this passage: once at the end of the first verse v. When a word or phrase recurs at the beginning and end of a composition, it is called an inclusio or envelope structure.

When a word or phrase repeats a number of times, particularly at marked intervals, it is called a refrain. Repetition stands out as an important way to convey meaning in the Bible. In poetry as well as prose, repetition of key words allows the author to highlight and emphasize central themes. First, the prophet charges his listeners to return to God vv. Additional types of repetition can be found in poetic compositions throughout the Bible.

In Isaiah 40—66, reduplication, or the side-by-side repetition of the same word, punctuates numerous passages, including: "Comfort, comfort my people" Isa. In certain psalms, the same phrase repeats at the beginning of several consecutive lines, such as "how long" in Psalm —3 or "bless" in Psalm — As these examples demonstrate, repetition not only conveys meaning, but also serves as a structuring device and enhances the aesthetic quality of the composition.

In biblical poetry, patterns are created though repetition as well as through other means. In various psalms and in the book of Lamentations, the verses are arranged alphabetically, in what is called an acrostic Lam. A prominent pattern in the Bible is a chiasm, where elements in a verse or over the larger expanse of a text are arranged in reverse order.

Genesis provides a good example: "The one who sheds [A] the blood [B] of a human [C], by a human [C'] shall his blood [B'] be shed [A']. Note the chiastic arrangement of the similes in relation to the verbs in each bi-colon:. Looking at the two bi-cola together, a chiastic pattern emerges in the order of the verbs, with the verb "to be" alternating with causative, color-related verbs: "are [A]…will turn white [B]…have turned red [B']…will be [A']. With its rich use of imagery and its precisely arranged elements, Isaiah demonstrates the potential complexity and artistry of biblical verse.

Another form of repetition and patterning involves the use of sound. Alliteration entails the repetition of the same or similar sound; in the Bible, we find ample examples of consonance, the more specific category of the repetition of consonants. For instance, listen to the way Amos incorporates several recurring sound patterns, which Shalom Paul attempts to capture in his English translation:. Isaiah provides a good example of paranomasia, a play on words using similar sounding words with different meanings JPS translation :.

Paranomasia is one of a host of literary devices found in biblical poetry. Classical Greek rhetoricians coined much of the terminology that is still used today to label the manifold ways language can be manipulated to produce various rhetorical effects. The few mentioned below reflect some of the more prominent tropes in biblical poetry. Instead, he metonymically speaks of them using the name of an object with which they are associated. Amos creates a metonym when he refers to ruler of Ashkelon as "the one who grasps the scepter" Amos , thus linking the king with an action and object associated with him.

The book of Amos contains examples of a number of other tropes. Amos employs hyperbole, or emphatic exaggeration, when he expresses the message that God rejects religious rituals if people do not act with justice and morality. The juxtaposition of two verbs in the first colon amplifies the tone of the passage:. Earlier in the book, Amos effectively uses rhetorical questions, constructing a prophecy comprised of nine rhetorical questions. He begins by asking: "Can two walk together without having met?

Then, question after question, he draws his audience in so that they eventually recognize his main point: "My Lord God has spoken, who can but prophesy? Deutero-Isaiah cleverly crafts a rhetorical question in order to respond to the Israelites' feeling of having been abandoned by God:.

This rhetorical question forms a metaphor that compares God to a mother in order to reassure the Israelites of God's enduring love and commitment. The expected answer to the rhetorical question is 'no'; but the prophet surprisingly suggests that, in certain cases, a mother might forget her child. This verse shows the limitations of a metaphor: God may be similar to a mother, but God's powers far exceed that of any human being. As Deutero-Isaiah repeatedly reminds his listeners: "To whom can you liken God?

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This example demonstrates the way poetic devices often operate in conjunction with one another. In many cases, we can identify the specific type of trope found in a poetic passage. In other cases, a writer's creativity defies easy categorization. None of the stylistic features discussed in this article are restricted to biblical poetry. They all appear in biblical prose, though not with such frequency and intensity. As Berlin points out, it is not the mere presence of elements such as parallelism or terseness, but their predominance "which marks the poetic expression of the Bible" Berlin , 5.

Appreciating the artistry of biblical poetry and the depth of its meaning requires being a skillful reader, one who can unpack the language, structure, and imagery of a poetic passage and then piece everything back together in a way that gives voice to the ideas conveyed in the elevated discourse of poetry. Hebrew secular poetry flourished in Muslim Spain Al-Andalus from the middle of the 10 th century to the middle of the 12 th and in the Christian kingdoms of the North of the Iberian Peninsula and Provence from the middle of the 12 th century to the end of the 15 th shortly before the expulsion.

During these two eras, particularly the former, Spanish Jewry developed a versatile poetry of far-ranging scope which was rooted in the revival of the biblical tradition. At the same time it also evolved in the light of Muslim, and later of Christian, culture and poetry and in the spirit of contemporary rationalistic trends. The most remarkable innovation of this period, however, was the creation of secular poetry which became a vehicle through which the poet could express his personal thoughts and feelings and his relation to man and society.

The style and motifs of secular poetry came to influence devotional poetry, which, however, developed separately and was considered a distinct genre. Congenial conditions for secular poetry evolved in the new Jewish community in Muslim Spain, a community not bound by tradition and prospering in an environment of religious tolerance and great cultural and ethnic diversity. It absorbed the culture of its environment and developed rapidly under the Cordoba caliphate and the petty kingdoms that were formed after the caliphate disintegrated in the 11 th century.

The patronage of the Jewish courtier, who was either a government official, a financier, or a landowner, created favorable conditions for the development of secular Hebrew poetry. The most eminent Jewish courtiers attracted scholars, artists, and poets to their courts, as did their Muslim counterparts. Most of the later poets of the Andalusian period were also court poets; a few poets, however, made their living as physicians and dayyanim , etc.

The institution of patronage in Muslim Spain began to decline in the middle of the 12 th century but continued in the Christian North of the Iberian Peninsula for a long time, though not as prominently. The court poet depended on his patron's favor and was closely connected with the latter's fate at the royal court. Some patrons, such as Ibn Gabirol's Jekuthiel, were executed as a result of court intrigues.

From the literary point of view the main drawback of court poetry was the conventionality in creativity that necessarily prevailed in the most commonly used poetic genres. One of the poet's main social functions was to compose panegyrics for his patron and dirges on the death of the latter's relatives. Thus the same motifs, images, and conventional formulations constantly recurred. On the other hand the status of the court poet had many advantages.

Poetry was part of the cultural life at the court and added to the prestige of the patron since it was the far-reaching dissemination of the poetry written at his court and the popularity it gained which spread his fame. Poetry was also a weapon in the hand of the poet, mainly in the guise of satiric poems. The poet enjoyed economic security, respectability, and sometimes even friendship, since many patrons were erudite, and true lovers of poetry.

Cultural life at the court also afforded the means for the extensive development of different poetic genres: wine and love songs for feasts, as well as other genres which did not have an immediate social function, e. The evolvement of a cultured and refined reading public at the numerous courts developed a keen critical sense both in the public and in the poet and stimulated the development of poetry into a highly refined art. The dependence of the court poet on his patron was considered natural, and the decline of the institution of patronage at the end of the Andalusian period was seen by poets as a direct cause of the decline of poetry.

Poetry was a very popular art. The fact that after the decline of the Spanish center its poetry was preserved and copied in remote countries testifies to its wide distribution. In Spain itself there were many centers of poetry: Lucena, Seville, and other towns were called "cities of poetry," such as Cordoba, Granada, etc.

The language of the Bible had a glorious renascence in secular poetry and superseded other linguistic layers which had developed since the end of the biblical period, i. The opposition to these latter developments was at times extreme, as Abraham ibn Ezra's criticism in his commentary on Eccles. This return to the ancient source of the language was a great innovation. Biblical Hebrew, considered the only accurate form of Hebrew, was seen as a clear, precise, beautiful, and divine tongue, which was superior to all other languages.

The view reflected the spiritual contest with the Arabs who set up the style of the Koran as a theological and aesthetic model and developed linguistic and poetic tools for its interpretation. An answer to this challenge could only be in the adoption of a biblical style which, because of its antiquity, diversity, poetry, and accuracy preserved by the masorah, was a formidable opponent.

The new approach not only developed out of internal apologetics and external rivalry, but was fostered by the spirit of rationalism expressed in the flourishing of sciences, including philology and philological exegesis — a prerequisite to a biblical renascence and to the development of a new poetic style.

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Already the earliest poets, Menahem ibn Saruq, Dunash b. Labrat, and Samuel ha-Nagid were also philologists, while all poets had a distinct inclination for philology. An important innovation in form was the introduction into Hebrew of an exact quantitative poetic meter, as found in Arabic poetry. The metric system establishing a new symmetry of sound which aroused admiration was based on a grammatical morphological principle: the distinction between short and long metrical units according to the exact biblical vocalization of the words.

Since quantitative meter had from its inception in Hebrew poetry been accepted as an immutable law, a preoccupation with biblical grammar and a mastery of biblical style in general was a natural outcome. Hebrew poetry used not only biblical vocabulary but also biblical idioms or verses which were interwoven into the fabric of the poem among other ornaments of style. This style, called mussiv , was not a mechanical mosaic of quotations, but a peculiar and original combination in a new context, which often led to a surprising change in meaning whose effect sometimes was humorous.

Readers brought up on the Bible studied these new effects, examined the poems in the light of the new linguistic and poetic norms, criticized them, and even corrected them. In time, though poetry tended toward extreme biblical purism, both in vocabulary and in form for later changes see below , semantic and syntactical changes were nevertheless introduced into biblical Hebrew. Syntax was at times determined by meter and biblical words consequently acquired a new meaning, either through the influence of similar Arabic words or through motifs drawn from Arabic poetry.

The fusion of the biblical background with the new elements of stylized poetry followed clear aesthetic principles. The poetics of the time, though formulated for Hebrew poetry by Moses ibn Ezra at the end of the Andalusian period c. Normative and neoclassic in character, it considers secular poetry it does not deal with devotional poetry as an art which demands education and training even for the naturally talented. It calls for clear, formal, rhetorical, and thematic requirements. Spanish Hebrew poetics thus demands that each poem be carefully rhymed and its meter be meticulous.

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Poems in which homonyms replace the rhymes are a variation of this type of poem. While the monotony of the classical form was relieved in the "girdle poem," allowing for virtuosity in metrical schemes and rhyme patterns, it was based on a unique principle of form. The "girdle poem" combines fixed and variable rhyme elements. Each stanza has a different rhyme and is followed by a section of a varying number of verses which have the same rhyme.

This rhyme recurs only in each of these sections. In their imitation of complex and intricate forms of Arabic "girdle poems" or of Hebrew ones by their predecessors , the Hebrew poets showed great skill in techniques of poetry. Some concluded their poems with an Arabic or Hispano-Roman jarya , which was frequently taken from a popular folk song. Poetry was mainly regarded as "ornamented speech" and the creative process as a conscious art. The poet chooses the subject and themes which he then "embellishes" with figures and tropes. This view which separates form and content is foreign to the modern conception of poetry.

The approach, basic to the rationalistic exegesis of metaphorical language in the Koran and the Bible in order to refute an anthropomorphic interpretation of descriptions of God , was adopted by the theory of poetry and was also used by poets. The poet's art is revealed in the rhetorical weave of the poem and in the details of poetic diction. It, too, is bound by tradition: conventional phrases and images recur in new combinations, as in a colorful kaleidoscope of style which changes the patterns of its permanent elements. Originality is praised but its scope is limited and is usually expressed by subtle, though sometimes surprising, variations on conventional elements rather than by daring individualistic vent and outburst, or by a new sensibility.

The choice of themes is circumscribed and conventionally fixed. Many subjects were considered unsuitable for poetry, others were only conventionally treated. Some poetic genres employ the neo-classical style which is beyond the individual and the specific. In wine songs, for example, the scenery is conventional, reinforced by traditional images: the feast par excellence or the ideal qualities of wine. Similarly, love poetry usually centers on a beautiful but harsh mistress of the type of la belle dame sans merci.

The unhappy rejected lover humiliates himself before the beloved in front of others who watch him, or in front of a moralizer ; but he draws supreme pleasure from his torment. In general, this poetry posits an ideal world of opposites absolute beauty or absolute ugliness, heights of joy and delight or abysses of grief, etc.

The imagery is also often based on real or fictitious antitheses pearls of wisdom as against the mire of folly; flames of anguish as against rivers of weeping, etc. As many compositions are polythematic, it is also possible to overcome the limits of convention and to express more personal or realistic views, according to the wish of the poet. Even in the most classical period Hebrew poetry is not purely formal and conventional, but allows a distinctive and personal means of expression of high literary value.

Secular poetry includes panegyrics, dirges, poems of self-praise, satire, wine songs, love poems, wisdom poems, complaints, songs of friendship and separation, etc. Genres were considered to be defined mostly by theme and to some extent by tone. This type of division, however, is not exhaustive, since each genre also has in addition to theme a specific pattern reflected in many ways, e.

The autonomy of the genres is most striking in the long poems similar to the Arabic qasida , which are not one unit. Traditionally, these have an "introduction" on any subject, e.

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In these poems the division is also not exhaustive. There is often a further subdivision into many diverse secondary sections, each belonging to a different genre. Many of the long poems therefore resemble a series of short poems of different genres. Though the elements of stylization in secular poetry were highly conventionalized, poetry was not stifled; it is richer in themes than is usually thought; variations in rhetorical and descriptive usages or in combination of genres, etc. The basic principles of theoretical and practical poetics, however, differed from the modern and appealed to a different type of sensibility.

The development of secular poetry testifies to a conscious and directed aim toward a continuous improvement of vehicles of expression and the increase of genres and themes within a normative framework. The character of secular poetry became defined in a relatively short period of time.

The earliest secular poet was apparently Menahem ibn Saruq; the novelty of his poems of which only fragments are extant or merely the names lay in their purpose and theme, but not as yet in the synthetic Hebrew-Arabic style which was to mark the school. That style was introduced as a deliberate novelty by Dunash b. Dunash adapted the principle of the Arabic quantitative meter to Hebrew poetry and changed its whole outlook through the integration of images, figures of speech, motifs, and genres taken from Arabic poetry.

While Dunash's views prevailed and greatly influenced Spanish Hebrew poetry, he did not develop all these possibilities in his own poetry — encomiastic and polemical poems and a quasi wine song which remain poor in style. His innovations were developed and extended in the following generation by Isaac b. Secular poetry expanded with the appearance of Samuel ha-Nagid, who introduced or fully developed for the first time universal wisdom poems, encomiastic and derogatory poems, official and personal dirges, wine and love poems, ornamental epigrams, and most of the other genres of secular poetry, including a genre which was not taken up by his followers, i.

Samuel ha-Nagid's achievement is spectacular not only in the diversity of genres and themes he used, but in the flexibility of his style, his glittering descriptiveness, and in some aspects of his poetic diction. His high status as Jewish leader, minister serving as one of the commanders of the army, halakhist, and philologist undoubtedly also contributed toward establishing secular poetry which greatly developed in his generation as a branch of literature.

His younger contemporary, Solomon ibn Gabirol, famous as a philosopher and poet, added to secular poetry a dimension of introspective depth and complexity, particularly in his personal poems which express the poet's struggle against fate and his yearning for love. The paradox, which had served his predecessors as a rhetorical device, became in Gabirol's poems a means through which the poet expresses his divided soul. Gabirol not only wrote personal secular poems which depart from conventions but modified existing genres by refining the diverse aspects of their conventions.

At the end of the 11 th century the Spanish style had already become defined, and even minor poets, whose range was limited, produced commendable works and enriched the extensive background from which the great talents emerged. Sheshet ibn Latimi , and Joseph b. The characteristics were defined and expressed in theory and in practice in the works of Moses ibn Ezra c. Among his diverse secular poems some are written in a very ornamental style, showing a preference for the metaphor over the simile and combining it with various figures of speech.

He was the first to develop homonymic poems in Hebrew which he collected in his Sefer ha-Anak. Secular poetry attained its classical peak with the works of the greatest Hebrew poet of the period, Judah Halevi. He gained fame not just through his personality and nationalistic sentiments, expressed in his poems and in his book Sefer ha-Kuzari , but for the quality of his poetry which aroused the admiration of his contemporaries.

His talent found scope both in his extensive and excellent devotional poetry and in his secular poetry, expressed in its range, versatility, and perhaps most of all in its pleasing style, which the poet achieved by a very flexible use of rhetorical devices, surprising twists, and a personal tone accompanying well-known themes.

Judah Halevi infused new life into the literary tradition of his time, even to the extent of deviating from convention, which he did with the freedom of the master. Through new combinations he modified and changed most of the poetic genres of his time. In dirges, for example, he not only used the classic form but innovated the genre with the strophic form, to which he gave a ballad-like quality by introducing a dialogue with the deceased.

His poems are also marked by a change of tone, and his love poems range from lightness and humoristic brilliance to sensuality. Judah Halevi also created new genres: poems about Zion and sea poems. He developed the new possibilities that secular poetry afforded, yet none of the later poets reached his poetic excellence or versatility.

The Almohads invaded Andalusia and wrought havoc among the Jewish communities, which were completely destroyed. From the mid th century during the Reconquista , as Jews emigrated to the north and the Christians advanced southward, secular Hebrew poetry and Hebrew poetry in general passed into the Christian North of the Peninsula. Although the cultural environment was no longer Muslim and the Arabic language and poetry were superseded by the Romance languages and literatures, and to some extent by troubadour poetry, secular poetry deliberately and consciously carried on the tradition of the Andalusian period.

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The Hebrew poets of Christian Spain at times declared themselves to be the guardians of the Andalusian tradition or merely its epigones e. Sometimes they might evince an affinity for a particular Andalusian poet and his fate e. In reality, however, important changes occurred in secular Hebrew poetry in Christian Spain due both to external influence and to internal development, one of which was in the sphere of language. In theory the ideal of biblical Hebrew still prevailed. In practice, however, some poets by the middle of the 13 th century no longer adhered to biblical purism and used more and more rabbinic talmudic and midrashic language, and even the contemporary scientific and philosophical language which had evolved in the late 12 th century.

At the same time translated literature developed to bring scientific and philosophic writings to the Jews of the Northern Christian kingdoms who could not understand the original Arabic. Speculative literature written in Hebrew also began to flourish during this period. Though the vocabulary was expanded, poetic diction tended to a prose-like sparseness or, conversely, to a baroque-like elaborateness and to manneristic forms, i. Such devices appeared in some poetry only, but rarely allowed for genuine poetic expression.

Humor and satire as poetic vehicles were already comparatively prominent in the 12 th century. Parody was a popular device e. The plot at times was only a pretext for their introduction. Eleazar and Isaac b. Some also show Christian influence, both in subject and in motif. Many Jewish intellectuals of the time maintained correspondences with co-religionists as a way of showing their ability in writing and their knowledge of Jewish culture. This correspondence included long sections of rhymed, highly rhetorical prose, and some verses. It acquired its own structure, with a prose introduction, a few initial verses indicating the number of verses of the main body of the composition, and the body itself; usually a section in prose followed, and, on the back of the paper, a few lines about the addressee.

Non-narrative metrical secular poetry also had a much wider range of subjects than in the Andalusian period. It broached topical matters, the most important of which was the major 13 th -century controversy on the character and teaching of Maimonides see Meshullam b. In the 14 th and 15 th centuries forced conversion and resistance to it was a foremost topic, beside other more classic genres panegyrics, dirges, satiric poems, love songs, etc. While the polemical poems were not always of great artistic value, they were typical of the adherence to reality found in secular poetry and the avoidance of ideal classicist generalizations of the Andalusian period.

This trend also found expression in other poetic genres, seen in the explicit mention of places, dates, etc. Such themes were spiritual love for a woman; e. Joseph ha-Levi , nature described pastorally Meshullam de Piera , and other subjects as well as some manneristic effects. Secular poetry in the Christian period through its expansion of themes and forms was more variegated than the secular poetry of the Andalusian period. At the same time, however, it usually was inferior in literary merit. There were some talented poets and some groups of poets, but there was no pleiad centering around great poets as in the Andalusian period.

The beginning of the period of secular poetry in the Christian Northern kingdoms of the Peninsula during and shortly after the destruction of the Jewish communities of al-Andalus is represented by the versatile Abraham ibn Ezra, poet, commentator, philologist, and scientist, who disseminated the Hebrew-Spanish style and culture in Christian Spain. His extensive poetry already reveals the particular blend of Andalusian tradition and the beginning of the new trends in its humor, satire, realistic approach and description — mentioning places, etc.

From the 12 th to the 15 th centuries, the fusion of Andalusian tradition with the various new elements humor in parody, satire, concreteness, etc. Eleazar; Abraham b. Kalonymus ; Isaac b. The principal innovations are first fully developed in the highly original poetry of Meshullam de Piera early 13 th century. He extensively resorts to rabbinic language and even to the language of the translators using unusual syntactic links between verses, but also sudden conceptual transitions and at times an obscure style which bears affinity to the troubadour trobar clus.

He reduces the laudations in the panegyrics to a closing dedication a type of troubadour envoi , etc. The poet Todros Abulafia late 13 th century , whose patron was Don Isaac de la Maleha courtier of Alfonso X, "the Wise" , also introduced novel themes into secular poetry, such as spiritual love and love poems about Arab and Christian women, description of the court and of the prison in which the poet was incarcerated, and comments in his poems on hackneyed poetic conventions.

He created new genres — a panegyric for the king patterned on a troubadour poem, panegyrics in which he used bold erotic imagery, and poems of controversy with other poets. To some extent he was also an innovator in clever manneristic forms letter combination, echo rhymes, etc. His poetry, however, shows him to be also an epigone of the Andalusian school particularly of Moses ibn Ezra. Todros Abulafia was still bound to the Arabic language and poetry years after his city Toledo had been conquered by the Christians.

During the 13 th century secular poetry also developed in countries which had not been under Muslim rule, particularly Provence, which was for more than one century a part of the Kingdom of Aragon, and as such received a strong Andalusian tradition, although through Hebrew only. Abraham b. He seems to have been particularly fond of literary controversy with the poets of his time.

His view on tradition and innovation is found in a fragment of a long and tedious poem in which he reviews early Hebrew poets, contemporary poets, and even Christian troubadours. Kalonymus the greatest translator of Provence , a similar work but of greater literary merit, is rich in talmudic expressions. It is characterized by despair about the Jewish condition, by biting satire, and by humor. During the last years the 14 th and 15 th centuries in which secular poetry flourished, Spanish Jewry lay under the shadow of persecutions and had to contend with forced conversion.

The theme, however, is expressed in Spanish Hebrew literature as early as the 13 th century. The tendency in secular poetry toward formal mannerism and the use of linguistic and stylistic trick devices for their own sake is partly found in the poems of Ibn Soli, Joseph b. Sheshet ibn Latimi, and Samuel b. While there was also a number of good single poems, there was an increase of uninspired versification of the books of the Bible and of philosophy.

Some secular poems attained a high degree of excellence, e. He attended to problems of immediate import; at the same time he also wrote personal poetry, e. He launched a biting satirical attack against his enemies. Saadiah b. Among the Jews expelled from Spain were a number of poets who continued writing in other countries, e.

The Jews expelled from Spain and their descendants continued to foster the Spanish style in their countries of refuge. The influence of the Hebrew-Spanish style had, however, extended beyond the Spanish borders long before — at the time secular poetry flourished in Spain. From the 12 th century onward it was taken up by Jewish communities throughout the Muslim world Egypt, Babylonia, Yemen, etc.

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The period extended from the 16 th to the 18 th centuries. Echoes of secular and devotional poetry, particularly of the great Andalusian poets, are found in modern Hebrew poetry at the end of the 19 th century and in the 20 th century. This harking back, however, is only sporadic. Italy was the first European country, other than Spain, in which Hebrew poetry, both sacred and secular, was developed. Although the Jewish population there was never large, the Hebrew poets in Italy made a notable contribution to Hebrew poetry.

Ahimaaz b. Undoubtedly there was communication between the Jews of Spain and Provence and those of Italy, and Hebrew poetry written in Spain was known in Italy. From the beginning of the 12 th century metrical poems were already being composed by Italian poets, e. Mali di Trani. Solomon of Rome Manoello Giudeo , lived during the 13 th and 14 th centuries. Immanuel was one of the first to compose sonnets in Italian and the first to compose Hebrew sonnets. Immanuel's work inspired a diversification in secular poetry.

Similarly, sacred poetry also began to acquire a new character; the poets of Italy, after the manner of the poets of Spain, composed metrical piyyutim. In the 15 th century Italian Hebrew poets began to emancipate themselves from their servitude to Spanish meter, utilizing instead a new syllabic meter which did not differentiate between the long and the short syllable.

Translating works from Arabic into Hebrew became a major literary activity in 13 th - and 14 th -century Italy, as it had been earlier in Provence. One of the great Hebrew translators, Kalonymus b. Kalonymus b. Meir Maestro Calo , who lived several years in Italy, became the friend of Immanuel of Rome and others of the 'group of the poets' in Rome. Sommo stated that he wrote the comedy to demonstrate that the Hebrew language was not dead and that it was capable of expressing contemporary concerns. Apart from this play, and apparently others, Sommo also wrote poetry and was known for his 'Dialogues on Stagecraft,' a discussion in Italian of the history and nature of the theater.

However, Sommo's original work was preceded by the Hebrew translation made by Joseph b. Samuel Zarfati b. The play, which first appeared in Burgos in , had considerable influence on the development of drama. Moses b. Tofteh Arukh 'Prepared Hell' , a play which reflects the influence of Immanuel of Rome, was at one time read as a musar book. Scholars who had read the play at communal gatherings requested the poet Jacob Daniel b. In the Middle Ages the Jewish inhabitants of France and Germany constituted a single cultural entity.

Although it is probable that secular poetry in the vernacular was composed by Jews living in this area, none of it is extant. The first paytanim in France and Germany, who appeared at the beginning of the tenth century, were members of the Kalonymus family Moses and Meshullam originating from Italy. Judah "the light of the exile" lived there. Jacob of Bonn, made their appearance in the 12 th century. Ephraim b. Isaac was the first to use Spanish meter in his piyyutim , and Ephraim b. Jacob integrated short piyyutim into his Sefer Zekhirah , a chronicle of the persecutions suffered by Jews of his time.

Isaac , anticipated Ephraim b. Isaac in the use of the Spanish meter in piyyut , this innovation was not followed up until much later. Judah of Worms, author of the Sefer Roke'ah , reflected in their piyyutim the sufferings endured by the Jews of their era. In medieval times every rabbi composed piyyutim , since the people wished to hear not only the traditional piyyutim but also new ones expressive of their time and place, and composed by a paytan whom they knew. Although these piyyutim are important from an historical point of view, poetically they contain little originality.

Elijah of Norwich 13 th century were influenced by the French paytanim. Meir of Norwich, in addition to piyyutim , composed metrical rhymes of four lines in which the first two and last two letters of the line are identical. Secular poetry, some of which was inspired by Spanish poetry, was also written. Natronai ha-Nakdan , who lived in the 13 th century in Normandy and also in England.

The work is written in rhymed prose and the fables end with metrical poems. The scholarly research devoted to Medieval Hebrew poetry in the mids was most notable for the publication of critical editions of the poems of the great poets of Spain. Brody and H. Baer, J. The effects of task-specific divergent-thinking training. Beaty, R. Metaphorically speaking: cognitive abilities and the production of figurative speech. Benedek, M.

Creating metaphors: the neural basis of figurative language production. Neuroimage 90, 99— Associative abilities underlying creativity. Briggs, K. Cacioppo, J. The need for cognition. Cheng, Y. Chiappe, D. The role of working memory in metaphor production and comprehension. Chybicka, A. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Corbalan, J. Question generation test: a new procedure for measuring creativity.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. Davis, M. Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach. Djikic, M. The bitter-sweet labor of emoting: linguistic comparison of writers and scientists. Epstein, S.

Individual differences in intuitive-experiential and analytical—rational thinking styles. Finke, R. Creative Cognition: Theory, Research and Applications. Garrido, S. Individual differences in the enjoyment of negative emotion in music: a literature review and experiment. Music Percept. Gibbs, R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gilhooly, K. Divergent thinking: strategies and executive involvement in generating novel uses for familiar objects.

PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Glucksberg, S. The psycholinguistics of metaphor. Trends Cogn. On understanding nonliteral speech: can people ignore metaphors? Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. Guilford, J. Gustafsson, L. Dziwne Drobne Przedmioty. Halonen, J. Demystifying critical thinking. Hausman, C.

Metaphor and Art. Heiden, B. Narrative in poetry: a problem of narrative theory. Narrative 22, — Hoffman, M. Gdansk: GWP. Jakobson, R. Kaufman, J. Beyond big and little: the four C model of creativity. Kenett, Y. Metaphor comprehension in low and high creative individuals. Kirsch, I. Prose comprehension and text search as a function of reading volume. Koestler, A. The Act of Creation. Kovecses, Z. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kozielecki, J. Nowy Kierunek Psychologii. A New Current in Psychological Thought]. Kraxenberger, M. Affinity for poetry and aesthetic appreciation of joyful and sad poems. Lakoff, G. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lerdahl, F. Tonal Pitch Space. Martindale, C. Brown Boston, MA: Springer , — McGovern, T. Learning about writing, thinking about teaching.

Mednick, S. The associative basis of the creative process. The influence of training in metaphorical thinking on creativity and level of dogmatism. Polish Psychol. Nickerson, R. Noy, P. Art and Emotions. Obermeier, C. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry. Paivio, A. Plotnik, A. Ritter, S. Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility. Runco, M. Metaphors and creative thinking. Shiloh, S. Individual differences in rational and intuitive thinking styles as predictors of heuristic responses and framing effects.

Silvia, P. Cognitive appraisals and interest in visual art: exploring an appraisal theory of aesthetic emotions. Arts 23, — Making creative metaphors: the importance of fluid intelligence for creative thought. Intelligence 40, — Sternberg, R. Stirman, S. Word use in the poetry of suicidal and nonsuicidal poets. Szymborska, W. Wiersze Wybrane. Krakow: Wydawnictwo.

Taruffi, L. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey. PLoS One 9:e Warszawa: PWN. Turner, F. The neural lyre: poetic meter, the brain, and time. Poetry , — Wachowicz, E. Sklep Internetowy. What Type of Poetry Boosts Creativity? The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

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