The Jewish Question

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  1. Gordon, S.: Hitler, Germans, and the Jewish Question (Paperback) | Princeton University Press
  2. On the so-called “Jewish Question”
  3. Karl Marx's Radical Antisemitism
  4. Timeline of Events

Gordon, S.: Hitler, Germans, and the Jewish Question (Paperback) | Princeton University Press

In , a Polish government commission was even sent to Madagascar to investigate the possibility of resettling Polish Jews there. However, its members concluded that the island could take only a small number of settlers. The plan for the settling of Jews on Madagascar was also supported by a number of Nazi chiefs and ideologists. In the span of a few days, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were invaded. On the 22nd of June the French government capitulated and signed a ceasefire.

Antisemitism in Europe - DW Documentary

After the invasion of Western Europe and the defeat of France, the realisation of the Madagascar Plan seemed within reach, since Madagascar was a French colony. The German foreign ministry and the SS started to prepare for the deportation of Jews to the island.

  • Karl Marx, Abram Leon and the Jewish Question – a reappraisal;
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  • (January 30, 1939).
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Hitler agreed. However, the plan could not be realised unless Britain was defeated, since as a result of its naval power Britain controlled sea routes to Madagascar and could prevent the deportations.

On the so-called “Jewish Question”

With the failure of the offensive against Britain in summer , the Madagascar Plan was shelved. Along with that they offered scholarly concepts for its solution. More Options Prices excl. Add to Cart. View PDF Flyer.

Karl Marx's Radical Antisemitism

Contents About. Pages: i—xi.

Jürgen Habermas and the European left

Pages: 1— By a vote of to , the rights of active citizenship were granted to the three or four thousand Sephardi Jews, specified as "Portuguese, Spanish and Avignonnais Jews. When the issue came up again the following year, the question focused on the much larger number of Ashkenazi Jews settled mainly in Alsace-Lorraine, who were more conspicuously Jewish.

More religious than the Sephardi, less assimilated, and very much a community, the Ashkenazi were charged with being a "nation within a nation. Count Clermont-Tonnerre, the deputy from Paris and the chief supporter of the motion, put the case most explicitly.

Those Jews who wanted to be citizens had to "disavow their judges" and eliminate their "Jewish corporations. There can only be the individual citizen. Thirty years later, after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the subject reappeared, in another country, another context, and with another cast of characters. Responding to a surge of antisemitism in Germany, the most eminent philosopher of the time came to the defense of the Jews. Having earlier propounded a philosophy that made reason a very different reason from that of the philosophes entirely compatible with religion, Hegel now, in Philosophy of Right , argued for the enfranchisement of Jews as a matter of right.

It is as if he had the French decree of in mind as he now insisted upon their full enfranchisement, as Jews as well as men. Even if they were regarded as a "religious sect" or "foreign race," this did not deny the fact that "they are, above all, men ," and as such each "a person with rights. Two decades later, one of Hegel's former disciples, Bruno Bauer a left-wing Hegelian, as he is now known , turned against the master, reverting, in effect, to the French Enlightenment's disparaging view of religion in general and Judaism in particular.

But Bauer's essay was provocative enough on its own.

Timeline of Events

Decrying all religion as illusory and pernicious, he declared Judaism to be the most degraded form of religion. Against those who defended Jews on the grounds that they had been oppressed and martyred, Bauer insisted that they had brought that condition upon themselves, provoking their enemies by their stubborn adherence to "their law, their language, their whole way of life. Since religion itself was a denial of citizenship, Jews could not claim citizenship unless they ceased being Jews.

Marx's critique of Bauer the following year gave a new twist to the "Jewish Question.