Librarian in Bondage: She paid her fine for overdue lust! (Caught in the Act Book 6)

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If so, it is odd that no Greek writer mentions it. Leaving for the time certain small fragments which may perhaps have preceded the extant episodes, I proceed to the first long episode Bonnet, c. Damonicus therefore, and Aristodemus his kinsman, and a certain very rich man Cleobius, and the wife of Marcellus, hardly prevailed to keep him for one day in Miletus, reposing themselves with him.

And when very early in the morning they had set forth, and already about four miles of the journey were accomplished, a voice came from heaven in the hearing of all of us, saying: John, thou art about to give glory to thy Lord in Ephesus, whereof thou shalt know, thou and all the brethren that are with thee, and certain of them that are there, which shall believe by thy means. John therefore pondered, rejoicing in himself, what it should be that should befall meet him at Ephesus, and said: Lord, behold I go according to thy will: let that be done which thou desirest.

But glorify thou thy God by healing her, and have compassion on us. For as I was considering with myself what resolve to take in this matter, one stood by me and said: Lycomedes, cease from this thought which warreth against thee, for it is evil hard : submit not thyself unto it. For I have compassion upon mine handmaid Cleopatra, and have sent from Miletus a man named John who shall raise her up and restore her to thee whole.

Tarry not, therefore, thou servant of the God who hath manifested himself unto me, but hasten unto my wife who hath no more than breath. And straightway John went from the gate, with the brethren that were with him and Lycomedes, unto his house. But Cleobius said to his young men: Go ye to my kinsman Callippus and receive of him comfortable entertainment -for I am come hither with his son- that we may find all things decent. What profit, then, hath Cleopatra from my anxiety?

The sun in his course shall no more see me conversing with thee: I will go before thee, Cleopatra, and rid myself of life: I will not spare mine own safety though it be yet young. I will defend myself before Justice, that I have rightly deserted, for I may indict her as judging unrighteously. I will be avenged on her when I come before her as a ghost [bereft] of life.

I will say to her: Thou didst force me to leave the light when thou didst rob me of Cleopatra: thou didst cause me to become a corpse when thou sentest me this ill fortune: thou didst compel me to insult Providence, by cutting off my joy in life my con- fidence. Stand, therefore, with us that have come hither on her account and pray to the God whom thou sawest manifesting himself unto thee in dreams.

What, then, is it, Lycomedes? Awake, thou also, and open thy soul. Cast off the heavy sleep from thee: beseech the Lord, entreat him for thy wife, and he will raise her up. But he fell upon the floor and lamented, fainting. John therefore said with tears: Alas for the fresh new betraying of my vision!

Why tarriest thou, Lord or, what wilt thou do? Do not, I beseech thee, Lord, do not give him cause to exult who rejoiceth in the suffering of others; give him not cause to dance who alway derideth us; but let thy holy name and thy mercy make haste. Raise up these two dead whose death is against me. And John, beholding the great multitude that was come, said unto the Lord: Now is the time of refreshment and of confidence toward thee, O Christ; now is the time for us who are sick to have the help that is of thee, O physician who healest freely; keep thou mine entering in hither safe from derision.

I beseech thee, Jesu, succour this great multitude that it may come to thee who art Lord of all things: behold the affliction, behold them that lie here. Do thou prepare, even from them that are assembled for that end, holy vessels for thy service, when they behold thy gift. For thyself hast said, O Christ, 'Ask, and it shall be given you'. We ask therefore of thee, O king, not gold, not silver, not substance, not possessions, nor aught of what is on earth and perisheth, but two souls, by whom thou shalt convert them that are here unto thy way, unto thy teaching, unto thy liberty confidence , unto thy most excellent or unfailing promise: for when they perceive thy power in that those that have died are raised, they will be saved, some of them.

Do thou thyself, therefore, give them hope in thee: and so go I unto Cleopatra and say: Arise in the name of Jesus Christ. And Cleopatra straightway cried with a loud voice: I arise, master: save thou thine handmaid. Now when she had arisen [who for incurable lain had] seven days, the city of the Ephesians was moved at the unlooked -for sight.

And Cleopatra asked concerning her husband Lycomedes, but John said to her: Cleopatra, if thou keep thy soul unmoved and steadfast, thou shalt forthwith have Lycomedes thine husband standing here beside thee, if at least thou be not disturbed nor moved at that which hath befallen, having believed on my God, who by my means shall grant him unto thee alive. Come therefore with me into thine other bedchamber, and thou shalt behold him, a dead corpse indeed, but raised again by the power of my God.

But John had compassion on Cleopatra when he saw that she neither raged nor was beside herself, and called upon the perfect and condescending mercy, saying: Lord Jesus Christ, thou seest the pressure of sorrow, thou seest the need; thou seest Cleopatra shrieking her soul out in silence, for she constraineth within her the frenzy that cannot be borne; and I know that for Lycomedes' sake she also will die upon his body.

And she said quietly to John: That have I in mind, master, and nought else. And the apostle went to the couch whereon Lycomedes lay, and taking Cleopatra's hand he said: Cleopatra, because of the multitude that is present, and thy kinsfolk that have come in, with strong crying, say thou to thine husband: Arise and glorify the name of God, for he giveth back the dead to the dead.

And she went to her husband and said to him according as she was taught, and forthwith raised him up. And he, when he arose, fell on the floor and kissed John's feet, but he raised him, saying: O man, kiss not my feet but the feet of God by whose power ye are both arisen. Likewise Cleopatra also caught his feet and said the same. And John said to them: For tomorrow I will be with you. And they said to him again: We shall have no hope in thy God, but shall have been raised to no purpose, if thou abide not with us. And Cleobius with Aristodemus and Damonicus were touched in the soul and said to John: Let us abide with them, that they continue without offence towards the Lord.

So he continued there with the brethren. And the painter, giving some one the necessary implements and colours, said to Lycomedes: Show him to me, and for the rest have no anxiety. And Lycomedes pointed out John to the painter, and brought him near him, and shut him up in a room from which the apostle of Christ could be seen. And Lycomedes was with the blessed man, feasting on the faith and the knowledge of our God, and rejoiced yet more in the thought that he should possess him in a portrait. And on the next he painted him in with his colours, and so delivered the portrait to Lycomedes to his great joy.

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And lie took it and set it up in his own bedehamber and hung it with garlands: so that later John, when he perceived it, said to him: My beloved child, what is it that thou always doest when thou comest in from the bath into thy bedchamber alone? And as he said this and talked jestingly with him, he went into the bedchamber, and saw the portrait of an old man crowned with garlands, and lamps and altars set before it.

And he called him and said: Lycomedes, what meanest thou by this matter of the portrait? And Lycomedes answered him: My only God is he who raised me up from death with my wife: but if, next to that God, it be right that the men who have benefited us should be called gods -it is thou, father, whom I have had painted in that portrait, whom I crown and love and reverence as having become my good guide. And Lycomedes brought him a mirror.

And when he had seen himself in the mirror and looked earnestly at the portrait, he said: As the Lord Jesus Christ liveth, the portrait is like me: yet not like me, child, but like my fleshly image; for if this painter, who hath imitated this my face, desireth to draw me in a portrait, he will be at a loss, [needing more than] the colours that are now given to thee, and boards and plaster? Thou hast colours which he giveth thee through me, who painteth all of us for himself, even Jesus, who knoweth the shapes and appearances and postures and dispositions and types of our souls.

And the colours wherewith I bid thee paint are these: faith in God, knowledge, godly fear, friendship, communion, meekness, kindness, brotherly love, purity, simplicity, tranquillity, fearlessness, griefiessness, sobriety, and the whole band of colours that painteth the likeness of thy soul, and even now raiseth up thy members that were cast down, and levelleth them that were lifted up, and tendeth thy bruises, and healeth thy wounds, and ordereth thine hair that was disarranged, and washeth thy face, and chasteneth thine eyes, and purgeth thy bowels, and emptieth thy belly, and cutteth off that which is beneath it; and in a word, when the whole company and mingling of such colours is come together, into thy soul, it shall present it to our Lord Jesus Christ undaunted, whole unsmoothed , and firm of shape.

But this that thou hast now done is childish and imperfect: thou hast drawn a dead likeness of the dead.


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There need be no portion of text lost at this point: but possibly some few sentences have been omitted. The transition is abrupt and the new episode has not, as elsewhere, a title of its own. Verus, then, came to John, saying: Of the aged women that are here over threescore years old I have found four only sound in body, and of the rest some. And when he heard that, John kept silence for a long time, and rubbed his face and said: O the slackness weakness of them that dwell in Ephesus!

O the state of dissolution, and the weakness toward God! O devil, that hast so long mocked the faithful in Ephesus! Jesus, who giveth me grace and the gift to have my confidence in him, saith to me in silence: Send after the old women that are sick and come be with them into the theatre, and through me heal them: for there are some of them that will come unto this spectacle whom by these healings I will convert and make them useful for some end. And the multitude, on the morrow, while it was yet night, came to the theatre: so that the proconsul also heard of it and hasted and took his sent with all the people.

And a certain praetor, Andromeus, who was the first of the Ephesians at that time, put it about that John had promised things impossible and incredible: But if, said he, he is able to do any such thing as I hear, let him come into the public theatre, when it is open, naked, and holding nothing in his hands, neither let him name that magical name which I have heard him utter.

I have been sent, then, upon a mission which is not of man's ordering, and not upon any vain journey; neither am I a merchant that make bargains or exchanges; but Jesus Christ whom I preach, being compassionate and kind, desireth by my means to convert all of you who are held in unbelief and sold unto evil lusts, and to deliver you from error; and by his power will I confound even the unbelief of your praetor, by raising up them that lie before you, whom ye all behold, in what plight and in what sicknesses they are. And to do this to confound Andronicus is not possible for me if they perish: therefore shall they be healed.

Neither think that when ye have gotten children ye can rest upon them? Neither, ye poor, be vexed if ye have not wherewith to minister unto pleasures; for men of substance when they are diseased call you happy. Neither, ye rich, rejoice that ye have much money, for by possessing these things ye provide for yourselves grief that ye cannot be rid of when ye lose them; and besides, while it is with you, ye are afraid lest some one attack you on account of it.

And thou that sharest not with the needy, but hast monies laid up, when thou departest out of this body and hast need of some mercy when thou burnest in fire, shalt have none to pity thee; and thou the wrathful and passionate, know that thy conversation is like the brute beasts; and thou, drunkard and quarreller, learn that thou losest thy senses by being enslaved to a shameful and dirty desire. And let the murderer know that the condign punishment is laid up for him twofold after his departure hence. Likewise also thou poisoner, sorcerer, robber, defrauder, sodomite, thief, and as many as are of that band, ye shall come at last, as your works do lead you, unto unquenchable fire, and utter darkness, and the pit of punishment, and eternal threatenings.

Wherefore, ye men of Ephesus, turn yourselves, knowing this also, that kings, rulers, tyrants, boasters, and they that have conquered in wars, stripped of all things when they depart hence, do suffer pain, lodged in eternal misery. This sentence must be an abridgement of a much longer narration. The manuscript indicates no break at this point: but we must suppose a not inconsiderable loss of text.

For one thing, Andronicus, who is here an unbeliever, appears as a convert in the next few lines. Now he is, as we shall see later, the husband of an eminent believer, Drusiana; and his and her conversion will have been told at some length; and I do not doubt that among other things there was a discourse of John persuading them to live in continence. Now the brethren from Miletus said unto John: We have continued a long time at Ephesus; if it seem good to thee, let us go also to Smyrna; for we hear already that the mighty works of God have reached it also.

And Andronicus said to them: Whensoever the teacher willeth, then let us go. But John said: Let us first go unto the temple of Artemis, for perchance there also, if we show ourselves, the servants of the Lord will be found. John therefore, when all were clad in white, alone put on black raiment and went up into the temple. And they took him and essayed to kill him. But John said: Ye are mad to set upon me, a man that is the servant of the only God. And he gat him up upon an high pedestal and said unto them:. So ye also remaining unchanged unto this day toward true godliness are become corrupted by your ancient rites of worship.

How many wonders and healings of diseases have ye seen wrought through me? And yet are ye blinded in your hearts and cannot recover sight. What is it, then, O men of Ephesus? I have adventured now and come up even into this your idol temple. I will convict you of being most godless, and dead from the understanding of mankind. Behold, I stand here: ye all say that ye have a goddess, even Artemis: pray then unto her that I alone may die; or else I only, if ye are not able to do this, will call upon mine own god, and for your unbelief I will cause every one of you to die.

We know that thou canst do it. And John said to them: If then ye desire not to die, let that which ye worship be confounded, and wherefore it is confounded, that ye also may depart from your ancient error. For now is it time that either ye be converted by my God, or I myself die by your goddess; for I will pray in your presence and entreat my God that mercy be shown unto you.

And the half of the temple fell down, so that the priest was slain at one blow by the falling of the? The multitude of the Ephesians therefore cried out: One is the God of John, one is the God that hath pity on us, for thou only art God: now are we turned to thee, beholding thy marvellous works! And some of them, lying on their faces, made supplication, and some kneeled and besought, and some rent their clothes and wept, and others tried to escape.

And having so said, he said to the people: Rise up from the floor, ye men of Ephesus, and pray to my God, and recognize the invisible power that cometh to manifestation, and the wonderful works which are wrought before your eyes. Artemis ought to have succoured herself: her servant ought to have been helped of her and not to have died. Where is the power of the evil spirit? And as John came down from thence, much people took hold of him, saying: Help us, O John! Assist us that do perish in vain! Thou seest our purpose: thou seest the multitude following thee and hanging upon thee in hope toward thy God.

We have seen the way wherein we went astray when we lost him: we have seen our gods that were set up in vain: we have seen the great and shameful derision that is come to them: but suffer us, we pray thee, to come unto thine house and to be succoured without hindrance. Receive us that are in bewilderment. But since I am not yet perfectly assured concerning you, I have continued praying to my God and beseeching him that I should then depart from Ephesus when I have confirmed you in the faith: and whereas I see that this is come to pass and yet more is being fulfilled, I will not leave you until I have weaned you like children from the nurse's milk, and have set you upon a firm rock.

And one of them that were gathered laid down the dead body of the priest of Artemis before the door [of the temple], for he was his kinsman, and came in quickly with the rest, saying nothing of it. John, therefore, after the discourse to the brethren, and the prayer and the thanksgiving eucharist and the laying of hands upon every one of the congregation, said by the spirit: There is one here who moved by faith in God hath laid down the priest of Artemis before the gate and is come in, and in the yearning of his soul, taking care first for himself, hath thought thus in himself: It is better for me to take thought for the living than for my kinsman that is dead: for I know that if I turn to the Lord and save mine own soul, John will not deny to raise up the dead also.

And John arising from his place went to that into which that kinsman of the priest who had so thought was entered, and took him by the hand and said: Hadst thou this thought when thou camest unto me, my child? And he, taken with trembling and affright, said: Yes, lord, and cast himself at his feet. And John said: Our Lord is Jesus Christ, who will show his power in thy dead kinsman by raising him up. And yet holding the young man by the hand he said: I say unto thee, child, go and raise the dead thyself, saying nothing but this only: John the servant of God saith to thee, Arise.

And the young man went to his kinsman and said this only -and much people was with him- and entered in unto John, bringing him alive. And John, when he saw him that was raised, said: Now that thou art raised, thou dost not truly live, neither art partaker or heir of the true life: wilt thou belong unto him by whose name and power thou wast raised? And now believe, and thou shall live unto all ages. And he forthwith believed upon the Lord Jesus and thereafter clave unto John. Paris Gr. John destroys the temple of Artemis, and then 'we' go to Smyrna and all the idols are broken: Bucolus, Polycarp, and Andronicus are left to preside over the district.

There were there two priests of Artemis, brothers, and one died. The raising is told much as in the older text, but more shortly. And a certain countryman who was admonished by his father not to take to himself the wife of a fellow labourer of his who threatened to kill him -this young man would not endure the admonition of his father, but kicked him and left him without speech sc. And John, seeing what had befallen, said unto the Lord: Lord, was it on this account that thou didst bid me come out hither to-day? And the young man was troubled and cast the iron on the ground, and said to him: I have done a wretched and barbarous deed and I know it, and so I determined to do an evil yet worse and more cruel, even to die myself at once.

For because my father was alway curbing me to sobriety, that I should live without adultery, and chastely, I could not endure him to reprove me, and I kicked him and slew him, and when I saw what was done, I was hasting to the woman for whose sake I became my father's murderer, with intent to kill her and her husband, and myself last of all: for I could not bear to be seen of the husband of the woman, and undergo the judgement of death.

And if I raise him up for thee, wilt thou hereafter abstain from the woman that is become a snare to thee. And the young man said: If thou raisest up my father himself for me alive, and if I see him whole and continuing in life, I will hereafter abstain from her. And John said to the youth: Thou wretched man, didst thou not spare even the old age of thy father? And he, weeping and tearing his hair, said that he repented thereof; and John the servant of the Lord said: Thou didst show me I was to set forth for this place, thou knewest that this would come to pass, from whom nothing can be hid of things done in life, that givest me power to work every cure and healing by thy will: now also give me this old man alive, for thou seest that his murderer is become his own judge: and spare him, thou only Lord, that spared not his father because he counselled him for the best.

And the old man said: I arise, Lord. And he rose and sat up and said: I was released from a terrible life and had to bear the insults of my son, dreadful and many, and his want of natural affection, and to what end hast thou called me back, O man of the living God? And John answered him: If thou art raised only for the same end, it were better for thee to die; but raise thyself unto better things.

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And he took him and led him into the city, preaching unto him the grace of God, so that before he entered the gate the old man believed. For on me God hath had mercy, that I should know his power. But John said to him: He that put it into thine heart, young man, to kill thy father and become the adulterer of another man's wife, the same made thee think it a right deed to take away also the unruly members.

But thou shouldest have done away, not with the place of sin, but the thought which through those members showed itself harmful: for it is not the instruments that are injurious, but the unseen springs by which every shameful emotion is stirred and cometh to light. Repent therefore, my child, of this fault, and having learnt the wiles of Satan thou shalt have God to help thee in all the necessities of thy soul. And the young man kept silence and attended, having repented of his former sins, that he should obtain pardon from the goodness of God: and he did not separate from John.

Since, then, thou art a preacher of such a God, come unto Smyrna and unto the other cities, that we may come to know thy God, and having known him may have our hope in him. Q has it thus:. Now one day as John was seated, a partridge flew by and came and played in the dust before him; and John looked on it and wondered.

And a certain priest came, who was one of his hearers, and came to John and saw the partridge playing in the dust before him, and was offended in himself and said: Can such and so great a man take pleasure in a partridge playing in the dust? But John perceiving in the spirit the thought of him, said to him: It were better for thee also, my child, to look at a partridge playing in the dust and not to defile thyself with shameful and profane practices: for he who awaiteth the conversion and repentance of all men hath brought thee here on this account: for I have no need of a partridge playing in the dust.

For the partridge is thine own soul. Then the elder, hearing this and seeing that he was not bidden, but that the apostle of Christ had told him all that was in his heart, fell on his face on the earth and cried aloud, saying: Now know I that God dwelleth in thee, O blessed John! And he entreated him to pray for him. And he instructed him and delivered him the rules canons and let him go to his house, glorifying God that is over all. It is told that the most blessed Evangelist John, when he was gently stroking a partridge with his hands, suddenly saw one in the habit of a hunter coming to him.

He wondered that a man of such repute and fame should demean himself to such small and humble amusements, and said: Art thou that John whose eminent and widespread fame hath enticed me also with great desire to know thee? Why then art thou taken up with such mean amusements? The blessed John said to him: What is that which thou carriest in thy hands? A bow, said he. And why, said he, dost thou not bear it about always stretched?

He answered him: I must not, lest by constant bending the strength of its vigour be wrung and grow soft and perish, and when there is need that the arrows be shot with much strength at some beast, the strength being lost by excess of continual tension, a forcible blow cannot be dealt. Just so, said the blessed John, let not this little and brief relaxation of my mind offend thee, young man, for unless it doth sometimes ease and relax by some remission the force of its tension, it will grow slack through unbroken rigour and will not be able to obey the power of the Spirit.

The only common point of the two stories is that St. John amuses himself with a partridge, and a spectator thinks it unworthy of him. The two morals differ wholly. The amount of text lost here is of quite uncertain length. It must have told of the doings at Smyrna, and also, it appears, at Laodicca see the title of the next section. One of the episodes must have been the conversion of a woman of evil life see below, 'the harlot that was chaste ' -].

But all of you must have your minds steadfast towards God, who never forsaketh us. But when they heard this from him, the brethren lamented because they were to be parted from him. And John said: Even if I be parted from you, yet Christ is always with you: whom if ye love purely ye will have his fellowship without reproach, for if he be loved, he preventeth anticipateth them that love him. And there accompanied him, of Ephesus, both Andronicus and Drusiana and Lycomedes and Cleobius and their families. And there followed him Aristobula also, who had heard that her husband Tertullus had died on the way, and Aristippus with Xenophon, and the harlot that was chaste, and many others, whom he exhorted at all times to cleave to the Lord, and they would no more be parted from him.

There was one bedstead lying somewhere there without coverings, whereon we spread the cloaks which we were wearing, and we prayed him to lie down upon it and rest, while the rest of us all slept upon the floor. But he when he lay down was troubled by the bugs, and as they continued to become yet more troublesome to him, when it was now about the middle of the night, in the hearing of us all he said to them: I say unto you, O bugs, behave yourselves, one and all, and leave your abode for this night and remain quiet in one place, and keep your distance from the servants of God.

And as we laughed, and went on talking for some time, John addressed himself to sleep; and we, talking low, gave him no disturbance or, thanks to him we were not disturbed. And when he was awaked we declared to him what we had seen. And he sat up on the bed and looked at them and said: Since ye have well behaved yourselves in hearkening to my rebuke, come unto your place. And when he had said this, and risen from the bed, the bugs running from the door hasted to the bed and climbed up by the legs thereof and disappeared into the joints.

And John said again: This creature hearkened unto the voice of a man, and abode by itself and was quiet and trespassed not; but we which hear the voice and commandments of God disobey and are light-minded: and for how long? To whom many said: It is not possible for thee to obtain that woman, seeing that for a long time she has even separated herself from her husband for godliness' sake. Art thou only ignorant that Andronicus, not being aforetime that which now he is, a God-fearing man, shut her up in a tomb, saying: Either I must have thee as the wife whom I had before, or thou shalt die.

And she chose rather to die than to do that foulness. If, then, she would not consent, for godliness' sake, to cohabit with her lord and husband, but even persuaded him to be of the same mind as herself, will she consent to thee desiring to be her seducer? And after two days Drusiana took to her bed from heaviness, and was in a fever and said: Would that I had not now come home to my native place, I that have become an offence to a man ignorant of godliness!

But now therefore Lord, since I am become the occasion of a blow unto a soul devoid of knowledge, set me free from this chain and remove me unto thee quickly. And in the presence of John, who knew nothing at all of such a matter, Drusiana departed out of life not wholly happy, yea, even troubled because of the spiritual hurt of the man. And Andronicus answered him: Yea, I am persuaded of it, O John, and I doubt not at all in regard of trust in my God: but this very thing do I hold fast, that she departed out of life pure.

And he kept silence, considering the provocation of the adversary, and for a space sat still. Then, the brethren being gathered there to hear what word he would speak of her that was departed, he began to say:. And the husbandman that hath committed the seed to the earth, and toiled much in the care and protection of it, let him then take rest from his labours, when he layeth up the seed with manifold increase in his barns.

Let him that enterpriseth to run in the course, then exult when he beareth home the prize. Let him that inscribeth his name for the boxing, then boast himself when he receiveth the crowns: and so in succession is it with all contests and crafts, when they do not fail in the end, but show themselves to be like that which they promised corrupt.

For many obstacles fall into the way, and prepare disturbance for the minds of men: care, children, parents, glory, poverty, flattery, prime of life, beauty, conceit, lust, wealth, anger, uplifting, slackness, envy, jealousy, neglect, fear, insolence, love, deceit, money, pretence, and other such obstacles, as many as there are in this life: as also the pilot sailing a prosperous course is opposed by the onset of contrary winds and a great storm and mighty waves out of calm, and the husbandman by untimely winter and blight and creeping things rising out of the earth, and they that strive in the games 'just do not win', and they that exercise crafts are hindered by the divers difficulties of them.

Not having succeeded with her when alive, he was still importunate after her death to her body, and said: If thou wouldst not have to do with me while thou livedst, I will outrage thy corpse now thou art dead. With this design, and having managed for himself the wicked act by means of the abominable steward, he rushed with him to the sepulchre; they opened the door and began to strip the grave-clothes from the corpse, saying: What art thou profited, poor Drusiana?

A serpent appeared from some quarter and dealt the steward a single bite and slew him: but the young man it did not strike; but coiled about his feet, hissing terribly, and when he fell mounted on his body and sat upon him. And first, when they set out, the keys were sought for and could not be found; but John said to Andronicus: It is quite right that they should be lost, for Drusiana is not in the sepulchre; nevertheless, let us go, that thou mayest not be neglectful, and the doors shall be opened of themselves, even as the Lord hath done for us many such things.

And we heard a voice saying to him: For Drusiana's sake, whom thou art to raise up-for I was within a little of finding her [shamed] - and for his sake that lieth dead beside her tomb. And when the beautiful one had said this unto John he went up into the heavens in the sight of us all. And John, turning to the other side of the sepulchre, saw a young man-even Callimachus, one of the chief of the Ephesians-and a huge serpent sleeping upon him, and the steward of Andronicus, Fortunatus by name, lying dead. And at the sight of the two he stood perplexed, saying to the brethren: What meaneth such a sight?

This Callimachus was enamoured of my sister; and because he never won her, though he often assayed it, he hath bribed this mine accursed steward with a great sum, perchance designing, as now we may see, to fulfil by his means the tragedy of his conspiracy, for indeed Callimachus avowed this to many, saying: If she will not consent to me when living, she shall be outraged when dead. And it may be, master, that the beautiful one knew it and suffered not her body to be insulted, and therefore have these died who made that attempt.

And can it be that the voice that said unto thee, 'Raise up Drusiana', foreshowed this? But I believe him that said that this is one of the men that have gone astray; for thou wast bidden to raise him up: for as to the other, I know that he is unworthy of salvation. But this one thing I beg of thee: raise up Callimachus first, and he will confess to us what is come about. And straightway the young man rose up, and for a whole hour kept silence. And he answered him: How could I accomplish it when this fearful beast struck down Fortunatus at a blow in my sight: and rightly, since he encouraged my frenzy, when I was already cured of that unreasonable and horrible madness: but me it stopped with affright, and brought me to that plight in which ye saw me before I arose.

And another thing yet more wondrous I will tell thee, which yet went nigh to slay and was within a little of making me a corpse. When my soul was stirred up with folly and the uncontrollable malady was troubling me, and I had now torn away the grave-clothes in which she was clad, and I had then come out of the grave and laid them as thou seest, I went again to my unholy work: and I saw a beautiful youth covering her with his mantle, and from his eyes sparks of light came forth unto her eyes; and he uttered words to me, saying: Callimachus, die that thou mayest live.

Now who he was I knew not, O servant of God; but that now thou hast appeared here, I recognize that he was an angel of God, that I know well; and this I know of a truth that it is a true God that is proclaimed by thee, and of it I am persuaded. But I beseech thee, be not slack to deliver me from this calamity and this fearful crime, and to present me unto thy God as a man deceived with a shameful and foul deceit. Beseeching help therefore of thee, I take hold on thy feet. I would become one of them that hope in Christ, that the voice may prove true which said to me, 'Die that thou mayest live': and that voice hath also fulfilled its effect, for he is dead, that faithless, disorderly, godless one, and I have been raised by thee, I who will be faithful, God-fearing, knowing the truth, which I entreat thee may be shown me by thee.

O what a greatness that came down into bondage! O unspeakable liberty brought into slavery by us! O incomprehensible glory that is come unto us! And John without delay went unto her tomb and took her hand and said: Upon thee that art the only God do I call, the more than great, the unutterable, the incomprehensible: unto whom every power of principalities is subjected: unto whom all authority boweth: before whom all pride falleth down and keepeth silence: whom devils hearing of tremble: whom all creation perceiving keepeth its bounds.

Let thy name be glorified by us, and raise up Drusiana, that Callimachus may yet more be confirmed unto thee who dispensest that which unto men is without a way and impossible, but to thee only possible, even salvation and resurrection: and that Drusiana may now come forth in peace, having about her not any the least hindrance -now that the young man is turned unto thee- in her course toward thee. And she arose and came out of the tomb; and when she saw herself in her shift only, she was perplexed at the thing, and learned the whole accurately from Andronicus, the while John lay upon his face, and Callimachus with voice and tears glorified God, and she also rejoiced, glorifying him in like manner.

But Callimachus, when he heard her say that, said: Do not, I beseech thee, Drusiana, for the voice which I heard took no thought of him, but declared concerning thee only, and I saw and believed: for if he had been good, perchance God would have had mercy on him also and would have raised him by means of the blessed John: he knew therefore that the man was come to a bad end [Lat. And John said to him: We have not learned, my child, to render evil for evil: for God, though we have done much ill and no good toward him, hath not given retribution unto us, but repentance, and though we were ignorant of his name he did not neglect us but had mercy on us, and when we blasphemed him, he did not punish but pitied us, and when we disbelieved him he bore us no grudge, and when we persecuted his brethren he did not recompense us evil but put into our minds repentance and abstinence from evil, and exhorted us to come unto him, as he hath thee also, my son Callimachus, and not remembering thy former evil hath made thee his servant, waiting upon his mercy.

Wherefore if thou allowest not me to raise up Fortunatus, it is for Drusiana so to do. And Fortunatus arose, and when he saw John in the sepulchre, and Andronicus, and Drusiana raised from the dead, and Callimachus a believer, and the rest of the brethren glorifying God, he said: O, to what have the powers of these clever men attained! I did not want to be raised, but would rather die, so as not to see them. And with these words he fled and went out of the sepulchre.

O fountain of the soul that abideth in foulness! O essence of corruption full of darkness! O death exulting in them that are thine! O fruitless tree full of fire! O tree that bearest coals for fruit! O matter that dwellest with the madness of matter al. O wood of trees full of unwholesome shoots and neighbour of unbelief!

Thou hast proved who thou art, and thou art always convicted, with thy children. And thou knowest not how to praise the better things: for thou hast them not. Therefore, such as is thy way? Be thou destroyed from among them that trust in the Lord: from their thoughts, from their mind, from their souls, from their bodies, from their acts their life, their conversation, from their business, their occupations, their counsel, from the resurrection unto or rest in God, from their sweet savour wherein thou wilt [not] share, from their faith, their prayers, from the holy bath, from the eucharist, from the food of the flesh, from drink, from clothing, from love, from care, from abstinence, from righteousness: from all these, thou most unholy Satan, enemy of God, shall Jesus Christ our God and [the judge] of all that are like thee and have thy character, make thee to perish.

We thy servants give thee thanks, O holy one, who are assembled with [good] intent and are gathered out of the world or risen from death. And when he was come unto Andronicus' house he said to the brethren: Brethren, a spirit within me hath divined that Fortunatus is about to die of blackness poisoning of the blood from the bite of the serpent; but let some one go quickly and learn if it is so indeed. And one of the young men ran and found him dead and the blackness spreading over him, and it had reached his heart: and came and told John that he had been dead three hours.

And John said: Thou hast thy child, O devil. In Bonnet's edition It introduces the last section of the Acts, which follows immediately in the manuscript. It may belong to either episode. The Latin has: And that day he spent joyfully with the brethren. There cannot be much of a gap between this and the next section, which is perhaps the most interesting in the Acts. The greater part of this episode is preserved only in one very corrupt fourteenth-century manuscript at Vienna.

Two important passages part and part were read at the Second Nicene Council and are preserved in the Acts thereof: a few lines of the Hymn are also cited in Latin by Augustine Ep. The whole discourse is the best popular exposition we have of the Docetic view of our Lord's person. Forasmuch, therefore, as they were perplexed and were, in a manner, not yet stablished in the faith, so as to endure it steadfastly, John said or John bearing it patiently, said :. For when he had chosen Peter and Andrew, which were brethren, he cometh unto me and James my brother, saying: I have need of you, come unto me.

And my brother hearing that, said: John, what would this child have that is upon the sea-shore and called us? And I said: What child? And he said to me again: That which beckoneth to us. And I answered: Because of our long watch we have kept at sea, thou seest not aright, my brother James; but seest thou not the man that standeth there, comely and fair and of a cheerful countenance?

But he said to me: Him I see not, brother; but let us go forth and we shall see what he would have. We were therefore perplexed, both of us, as to what that which we had seen should mean. And after that, as we followed him, both of us were by little and little [yet more] perplexed as we considered the matter. Yet unto me there then appeared this yet more wonderful thing: for I would try to see him privily, and I never at any time saw his eyes closing winking , but only open.

And oft-times he would appear to me as a small man and uncomely, and then againt as one reaching unto heaven. Also there was in him another marvel: when I sat at meat he would take me upon his own breast; and sometimes his breast was felt of me to be smooth and tender, and sometimes hard like unto stones, so that I was perplexed in myself and said: Wherefore is this so unto me? And as I considered this, he. Again in like manner he bringeth us three up into the mountain, saying: Come ye with me. And we went again: and we saw him at a distance praying.

I, therefore, because he loved me, drew nigh unto him softly, as though he could not see me, and stood looking upon his hinder parts: and I saw that he was not in any wise clad with garments, but was seen of us naked, and not in any wise as a man, and that his feet were whiter than any snow, so that the earth there was lighted up by his feet, and that his head touched the heaven: so that I was afraid and cried out, and he, turning about, appeared as a man of small stature, and caught hold on my beard and pulled it and said to me: John, be not faithless but believing, and not curious.

And I said unto him: But what have I done, Lord? And I say unto you, brethren, I suffered so great pain in that place where he took hold on my beard for thirty days, that I said to him: Lord, if thy twitch when thou wast in sport hath given me so great pain, what were it if thou hadst given me a buffet? And he said unto me: Let it be thine henceforth not to tempt him that cannot be tempted. And I went, and they both said unto me: He the old man that was speaking with the Lord upon the top of the mount, who was he?

And I, having in mind his great grace, and his unity which hath many faces, and his wisdom which without ceasing looketh upon us, said: That shall ye learn if ye inquire of him. And my Lord said unto him: Thou sayest well: for they are men. And if at any time he were bidden by some one of the Pharisees and went to the bidding, we went with him, and there was set before each one of us a loaf by them that had bidden us, and with us he also received one; and his own he would bless and part it among us: and of that little every one was filled, and our own loaves were saved whole, so that they which bade him were amazed.

This is probably an exaggerated figure, but it was definitely discovered that about 90 per cent, of the amount of opiates imported was used for the corrupting of youths and maidens between the ages of 17 and How much of this 90 per cent, was smuggled into Canada for a similar purpose we are unable to state, but we know the proportion was large. Be this as it may, our Canadian Government, through the Opium and Drugs Act, has taken upon itself the duty of striking strongly at narcotic drugs by its police arm and are deserving of the highest commendation.

There is no gainsaying the immensity of the undertaking, but it will never be so easily dealt with as now. That the Government needs to take sharply remedial measures, especially in dealing with the addicts themselves, is also palpable. Since the war we have gleaned new ideas about the wastage of human material, and the duty of conserving life. Where the addicts are concerned, we must not let ourselves fall into the pagan and horribly callous attitude of the late Dowager Empress of China, known to her people as "the Old Dragon. In this country it is our desire to have the benefits from its suppression without destroying our people or unduly impairing their efficiency.

Such desirable results cannot be accomplished without careful plans, legislative sanction, and ample backing from the public. I i But, undoubtedly, Mr. What is more important, however, than the example of other countries, is the good name of our own. To be indifferent to the growth of such an evil in Canada would be inconsistent with those principles of morality which ought to govern the conduct of a Christian nation.

King wrote these words in , when the Chinese residents had presented claims to the Federal Government for losses occasioned by the anti-Asiatic riots during which seven of their opium factories were destroyed. King, then the Minister of Labor, further said that the amount consumed in Canada, if known, would probably appal the ordinary citizen who is inclined to believe that the habit is confined to the Orientals.

The Chinese with whom he had conversed assured him that almost as much opium was sold to white people as to Chinese, and that the habit was making headway, not only among white men and boys, but among women and girls. This was eleven years ago, and no particular attention was paid Mr. King's warning, with the result that all the provinces of Western Canada are, today, suffering immensely from this evil. A few days in the Edmonton police court would reveal the extent of the system here in the far north, and it is certain that a vast international organization is handling the importation and supply of huge quantities of every sort of vicious drug.

Action cannot be taken too soon. Several years ago, with two plain clothes men known as "dope cops," I visited Chinatown in Vancouver, that queer district where men seem to glide from nowhere to nothing. In entering Shanghai Alley, I was warned to stand clear of the doorways lest a rush be made from inside, when I would be trampled upon. In passing up a narrow staircase of unplaned boards, one detective walked ahead and one behind me, each carrying a flashlight.

Although plainly narcotised, the police might not apprehend the sleepers. One may only arrest those found in the act of smoking. It would seem that here, as in the best English circles, the eleventh commandment is "Never interrupt. As you looked and looked again on these prostrate, open-eyed insensates it began to dawn on you what Bret Harte meant when he spoke of "The dread valley of the shadow of the drug. Upon entering the room above, no one was to be seen, but the room was filled with the sickly fumes of cooked opium.

Only the month before, a half-dazed unhappy wretch in an attempt to escape from the police threw himself off the roof of a building and died on the pavement beneath. The other Chinamen, to have revenge, swore that one of these detectives had thrown the man off. The detective charged with this crime was the one ahead of me with the long key. HILE the drug habit affects all classes of society in Canada, there would seem to be more addicts, per capita, of the population, in some districts than in others.

Sometimes, one is inclined to think otherwise, and that the seeming difference is due to the various methods adopted in its detection. In Edmonton, Alberta, our morality squad, or "plain-clothes men," who find inhibited drugs in the possession of any person are awarded half the fine by the magistrate. Indeed, any informant is awarded this if a conviction be made.

In Toronto, Winnipeg and other cities, this procedure is not pursued. It is claimed that if it were generally practised, the detectives would do no other work. We think this is a mistaken contention for, here in the north, we have as large a quota of convictions for other criminal offences as they have in the more southerly cities. But apart from the sharpening of the official senses where the ferreting out of drugs is concerned, a moiety of the fines ought to be paid to the men who trail down! The traffic in drugs is carried on with such strict secrecy that the utmost caution and patience are required to secure information and evidence.

This being secured, to force an entry to a drug den at two o'clock in the morning when the "dopers" are irresponsible either wholly or in part, is an unpleasant and often a dangerous task. A man needs to take his courage in both hands for, generally speaking, infuriated dopers are no herd of sheep. In smoking, the Chinaman reclines on a mattress on the floor, having beside him a pan which contains the opium "lay-out. For the same reason, the keyhole of the door is plugged, thus preventing its being locked with a key.

The door is secured with a butcher knife driven into the door-jamb. Finally, the available furniture is piled against the door to guard against surprises. It is this butcher knife in the door-jamb, that constitutes the chief est danger to the detectives who come with an order for search, although more than one officer has been killed by a bullet sent through the panel of the door.

Two years ago, the Chief of Police at Vancouver and one of his men were murdered in this way while waiting in a hall-way for a dope-fiend to give entry. In Toronto, they tell us that the Chinese used to smoke openly, but since when the Opium and Drug Act came into force, open smoking ceased and, as a result, there are fewer convictions. But if Toronto pays no douceur to the morality squad, still it has given considerable attention to the examination of the books and prescriptions of the druggists. If a druggist is selling more narcotics than other druggists he must render an accounting or lose his license.

On one occasion, to show the officers how easily it could be done, a drug "fiend" without a prescription from a physician, dentist or veterinary, went out from the police station and bought several No. It must not, however, be deduced here that this is possible in every pharmacy, for in Toronto, as elsewhere, the disreputable dispenser of drugs is greatly in the minority. In Toronto, too, an inspector from the College of Pharmacy inspects the books of the different drug shops in order that he may scrutinize and compute the sales. It is their claim, also, that the drug habit is not increasing in the Queen City.

Without seriously questioning this claim it is nevertheless, hard to credit that any densely populated portion of Canada has had no proportionate share in the consumption of narcotic drugs, the importation and sale of which have so enormously increased during 34 THE BLACK CANDLE the past six years, especially when no special preventive efforts have been taken, other than those which obtain elsewhere. No reason has been given for this phenomenon unless we accept the theory that a vastly higher moral standard prevails in Toronto than in other cities.

Without being facetious, we are prepared to acknowledge that this is possible and may be quite true. In Winnipeg, it is officially stated that the habit is growing rapidly, and that the police have on their lists the names and addresses of hundreds of persons who are inveterate users of narcotics. It was recently declared by an investigating committee in California that the drug distribution centre for all America is in Western Canada.

The evidence upon which this astounding assertion is based has not been made public but it is quite possible, even probable, that this assertion is true. Sometimes, it was smuggled by means of nut shells. The nut was cut in half, the kernel removed; the cavity filled with opium and the two parts glued together again. It was sold to the drug-users in this form. Indeed, the Chinese used to smuggle opium in chairs which they said were family heirlooms but, one day, the truck of a stevedore struck an heirloom on a gang-plank and released eighty pounds of opium.

It was found that even the legs of this chair were stuffed with the drug. It is claimed that less adroitness is required to land contraband in Canada than in the States, and that it is brought here daily in many and various containers, even in musical instruments. Other than the assumption made by government officials at Ottawa that opium was being smuggled into the States from Montreal, it had occurred to few of us, if any, that an immensely greater traffic might have gained foothold in Western Canada.

We took for granted that the commerce in drugs was directly between the United States and China, not dreaming that Canada might be the intermediary in the same. It is alleged that this nefarious traffic in the States has been partially carried on by Pullman-car porters and even by customs officials who grew rich in the trade. We are unable to vouch for the truth of this, but it might not be too hard for officials, at certain specified points to release bonded consignments of opium which were camouflaged as tea, preserved ginger, or bamboo shoots.

Certainly not. We do not even suggest it. We are only telling the Federal Customs Department what might happen here if our immunity to bribes were not absolutely above suspicion. When, however, it comes to railway porters—Ah well! Indeed, we know a certain blackamoor—an erstwhile porter—who, at the present moment, is languishing in prison on a term imposed by ourselves.

This fellow is also under penalty for having in his possession what must assuredly have been the most obscene literature ever printed. One can hardly imagine anything more dangerous than a filthy-minded drug-addict in charge of a coach of sleeping people, whatever his color may be. When this man's quarters were raided, six pipes, a quantity of prohibited drugs and a woman were taken. The woman who had a kind of zig-zag appearance, assured us in court that she had just "happened in" the opium rooms by the merest accident, but the tremor of an isolated muscle in her face; her trembling gait; her leaden pallor; the closely contracted pupils of her eyes; and her stupefaction which approximated senile dementia, were all definitely symptomatic of recovery from an opium debauch.

Even the Old One himself couldn't do it. Having said this about porters, one cannot in fairness, leave the subject without paying tribute to those other faithful "boys" in the service who are so solid and sensible that they seem almost super-civilized. It takes rare probity of character to keep returning purses, watches, diamond rings and other mere impedimenta that careless folk lose daily in every Pullman berth, to say nothing of overcoming the desperate desire of testing the contents of flasks that protrude invitingly from pockets on nearly every clothes-hanger. Railway detectives tell us that on the West Coast of Canada, opium is thrown overboard in rubber bags, or other receptacles, from in-coming steamers.

This flotsam is taken into open boats, at certain points in the harbors, by confederates of the smugglers, thus evading discovery in the customs-house. They also tell us that unless you are accustomed to handling it, you might not even recognize opium as such. The Police allege that an inter-provincial traffic is carried on by means of agents. The opium is carried in tin cannisters by one man who passes on the residue to another man at the borders of the next province, and so on across the Dominion. When it comes to smuggling narcotics across the boundary line between Canada and the United States, a whole volume could be written on the subject, but one has no desire to teach "Smuggling without a Master," so one refrains.

Suffice it to say, that detectives now look with close scrutiny into the extra car- tire at the back of motors. Like a maleficent influence released, From the most squalid cellarage of hell. PIUM is the juice of the white poppy papver somniferum and is the sap which exudes from incisions made on the outside of the capsules when they have attained their full growth after the fall of the petals. The poppy was well known to ancients, its cultivation being mentioned by Homer, and its medicinal properties by Hippocrates.

Morphine is an alkaloid of opium—that is to say, its active vegetable principle having alkaline qualities. Codein is also a derivative of opium. Opium and its derivatives are distinguished by a flavor that is acrid, nauseous and bitter. Opium is smoked; morphine is taken hypodermic- ally, or by the mouth. Hypodermic injections are more favored by the users of this particular drug in that they become intoxicated without the disagreeable effects of the substance.

Then, too, when morphine is swallowed, it takes longer to produce its solacing effect Contrariwise, the use of the hypodermic is attended with dangers from an infected solution or from a dirty needle. Frequently, morphine habitues will insert the needle into their arms without the precaution of rolling up their sleeves. This infection results in the formation of abscesses. During the trial, she became hysterical and began to beg piteously for morphine of which she had been deprived from the day previously. She complained of intense neuralgia, chills, thirst and abdominal pains.

Finally she collapsed. Surely, the soul of her was "full of scorpions: she had supp'd full with horrors. She became quiet immediately after she had received her daily dose. Her husband who was charged conjointly, was in hardly a more comfortable condition, complaining of muscular cramps and profuse sweating. This man who came from a notable Canadian family, had already served several terms in jail for breaches of the Opium and Drugs Act.

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He, too, had to receive attention from the doctor who showed me the victim's condition. The upper part of the man's body was so punctured by the needle that there was no flesh available for fresh "shots" except on his back. His arms and chest looked more like a perforated milk-skimmer than anything else.

He told us his skin had become so thick and hardened, he broke many needles in trying to in- OPIUM 41 sert them. He also confessed to having lost his sense of taste and that he was losing his memory. He has taken so much morphine that he will soon be immune from it as a poison and can hardly be killed by it, a state which is known to physicians as Mithridatism.

Surely, the late Earl of Shaftesbury who devoted his life to the study of social problems such as these, was wholly within the mark when he described drug- addiction as the greatest of modern abominations. The difference between the opium smoker and the morphinist, is that the opium smoker does not fear the slavery of the habit while the morphinist does.

For a truth, the latter always suffers from a sense of uncertainty and dread. The sword of Damocles is forever hanging over his head. The smoker of "the soothing pipe" is usually quiet unless fearful of arrest, or when deprived of the drug; then he becomes highly irritable. One who has tried the effects of the pipe puts them in this order: 1 vertigo; 2 stimulation; 3 tranquility; 4 after three or more pipes, profuse perspiration, prickly heat, thirst, fear, intense desire to sleep.

The novice usually becomes talkative. The sleep which succeeds is a prolonged one. The following morning, the smoker has a headache that aches, no appetite worth mentioning, and his tongue is furred like a brown musquash pelt. On the other hand, the morphinist gets no pleasure, but merely forget fulness of life. He ages quickly; becomes indolent, parasitical, totter-kneed, and without enough brawn to throw a puppy dog. But in whatever form these drugs are taken, they degrade the morals and enfeeble the will.

No matter what their status has been, inveterate users of drugs become degraded. All are liars; nearly all become dishonest. Being deprived of the drug, they will go any length to get it, even to thievery and prostitution. While sober they are uncomfortable, and prolonged abstemiousness hurts them like nails driven into the flesh. We were not able to recover these, having no one to corroborate her statements. When not shut up, her days and nights were spent in garages and opium joints. After all her negotiable apparel had been sold, we got her a railway ticket and persuaded her to go home.

She is making a tremendous effort to recover from "the grey peril," and it is now a year since she has visited town. Being superstitious, and realizing the danger of boastfulness, we are here "touching wood. In answer to the question, "What constitutes an addict? James A. Hamilton, Commissioner of Correction for New York City, says, "If a person OPIUM 43 takes opium or its derivatives for three months steadily, taking three hypodermics a day, he will become a true addict, and were he to stop abruptly he would show decided withdrawal symptoms.

As a rule, addicts must increase the dosage as they go along in order to obtain the desired results. Little by little I found The truth of her stripped of all clothing, Bitter beyond all bound, Leprous beyond all loathing. Dragon of lure and dread, Tiger of fury and lust, The quick in chains to the dead, The slime alive in the dust.

Like the drinking of wine, it makes for a foregathering. Because of the dangers attending its detection, much care must be exercised in its use, especially in Canada where neighbors are inclined to be friendly and to call at unseasonable hours. That fence between us only whets my appetite. Should the noisome, insinuating odor escape, no one is suspected but Ah Sin. Should the place be raided, Ah Sin is apprehended for being in the unlawful possession of opium. He pays the fine, this sallow, unsmiling Oriental, and says nothing for, after all, he loses nothing but his inconsiderable reputation.

Boss he hop- head allee samee China boy. Sirs and Madames, on such evidence we, ourselves, have issued orders for search and warrants for apprehension. The evidence is usually obtained by secret service men in the employ of the police departments. We said awhile ago that opium smokers liked company, a fact that frequently tends to their undoing, for when an addict has been in custody for a day or so, he will often give the names and resort of his particular coterie if, by this means, he can secure even one smoke to satisfy his craving.

Sometimes, a group of entertainers will live at a house where all the lodgers are drug-takers. Recently, a landlady and three of her lodgers were charged before us with having opium in possession for other than scientific or medicinal purposes. The boarders, all of them under twenty-two years of age, were dancers and singers at cabarets. All Were fined except the landlady, a bleared, toneless, half-awake creature, who was committed to jail. OPIUM 45 Not so long ago, a Scotch detective brought in a Chinaman and a girl whom he found smoking in a piano case, underneath a curtain of hemp sacking.

The girl who was rarely beautiful and only seventeen years of age, was released from custody on suspended sentence to take a position as stenographer in a legal firm. This same Scotch detective, whose nose has been specially constructed for smelling cooked opium, found a negro smoking the drug in a wardrobe with a white woman on either side of him. Over their heads they had a thick tartan which our detective calls "a pled," and into this the negro blew the smoke which the women inhaled. By this means the three persons became intoxicated on one pipe.

Folk must exercise thrift these days when card-cakes are high. This misuse of the tartan was, to our Scotchman, the evidence of an amazing effrontery; the proof of a unique unscrupulousness, with which the breach of the Opium and Drugs Act was a mere bagatelle. We spoke of "card-opium" just now.

For the uninitiated, it is here explained that for selling in a small way, opium is made into cakes about the size of a fifty-cent piece. This is placed on the centre of a playing-card, and the card is bent in half, the opium adhering to the inside like a wad of chewing gum. This opium is smoked over two or three times, as the residue of ash is large. By some, this ash is called yen shee. After repeated smokings, to give it piquancy it is mixed with a sort of salt which is a Chinese preparation.

These are called "hop-pills. Or, again, the ash may be made into a thick gummy liquid. This is drunk with black tea, or Boston coffee, but not with water. The faces of inveterate smokers are darker than those of the morphinists, and anyone who has to deal with drug-fiends may learn to know the difference. The smoker's face becomes sallow and dead-looking.

A Comparison of

Sometimes, his head looks like a mere mummified skull. In chapter one we said that opium and its derivatives were frequently used by people for their aphro- disiacal qualities, but that the end was impotence and sterility. A young woman who came to my office after her release from jail, complained bitterly that now, because she had become normal again, she was liable to motherhood.

Physicians have since assured me that the woman's claim was correct; that drug-addiction leads to amenorrhoea. While it is well that opium addicts tend to become impotent yet, in face of a persistently falling birthrate, this phase of drug-addiction is of the utmost importance, and is another reason why the scourge should be firmly dealt with in Canada. Saleeby has recently pointed out that in Great Britain, in , for the first time, the deaths have actually exceeded the births.

He also points out "Once a woman has started on the trail of the poppy, the. Wise folk ought to think about these things for awhile. Out in the dark night hear him cry. He says that there'll be plenty of peaches spread on the housetop by and by, He'll have a feast, the grey old robber, when the peaches are put to dry. Of the results achieved, we shall speak later, our attitude for the moment being directed to mixed addiction, but particularly to cocaine and heroin.

McConnell, M. It is increasing to an alarming extent, and, to-day, it is a menace to the country. Certain powders are also consumed as narcotics, but must be taken in large quantities. Indeed, one of the most troublesome and persistent of addicts in the north tells us that she uses these powders almost exclusively.

She has become loveless and unlovely, a poor-hearted and shameless woman, and about as amenable to reason as a bit of dandelion fluff. It would seem relevant to here say that, in the searching of addicts or illicit vendors, the police must be inquisitive and painstaking rather than courteous. This is no task for an officer who is lumpish or a crackskull. Sometimes, when arrested, "a snowbird"—that is to say a man who snuffs cocaine, usually designated as -will draw out his cigarette box, light the snow 50 THE BLACK CANDLE last cigarette, and flip the box into the wastepaper basket, or under the table.

This flipping of the empty box is so casual and common in everyday life that one might easily be excused from thinking of the box as a receptacle for drugs. The skilled detective, however, picks it up, and so gets his clear case. Among women, the dope-takers hide cocaine in their hair, under the soles of their feet, in the seams of their coat, under braid, by rubbing it into white clothing, in the roof of their mouth where it is covered by the plate of their false teeth, or by secreting it on their body.

In their homes, they hide it in a package of empty envelopes, in the feet of the bath-tub, behind sur- bases, in flower pots, in hollow door-knobs, or in some other place that might be overlooked by the hunters. It was first used in ophthalmic and surgical operations in , but cocoa leaves have been chewed for generations to relieve fatigue.

Indeed, in the year , the poet Cowley wrote— "Our Varicocha first this coca sent, Endowed with leaves of wondrous nourishment, Whose juice suck'd in, to the stomach tak'n, Long hunger and long labor can sustain. It was found that while small doses had a tonic effect, giving relief from physical and mental pain, a larger dosage had a deleterious effect, resulting in the clouding of the memory, singing in the ears, an inability to control the thoughts, headache, delirium, and a dangerous melancholy. A person addicted to its habitual use is known as a cocanist.

In a later state, they are described as cocainomaniacs. When on the verge of suicide for need of the drug, they are said to have "the cocaine leaps. A considerable number of the persons who are convicted for drunkenness while driving motor cars, have not taken any alcohol but are crazed with cocaine.

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An ungentle young woman who came before us last winter, and who has been convicted for having inhibited narcotics in her possession, called a motor car at two o'clock in the morning. She had hardly entered it, when the driver felt the cold nozzle of a revolver against the back of his neck and heard a peremptory order to drive faster. Presently, the powerful car had reached the top limit of its speed, but still the woman kept ordering the driver to go faster and faster.

Fortunately the streets were clear so that a policeman on a motor cycle was able to overhaul the mad riders and take the woman into custody. For this reason it is used freely in throat sprays, cough lozenges and catarrh powders. Because of this deadening effect, it is possible for a person under the influence of cocaine to refrain from food for a couple of days without suffering from the sensation of hunger. It has, however, no food value, and a young married man tells us, that his bride, aged seventeen, who is suffering from drug-addiction disease, lost a pound a day in weight during ten days she was away from him in hiding.

These are called "decks," and contain a couple of "sniffs. Indeed, one of our women detectives tells us that in buying from the Chinese in their cafes, she must purchase cigarettes and noodles in addition. Before leaving Ah Sin sees that "the decks" are safely stowed away in her stocking lest those bear-fierce, claw-handed police-fellows find it in her pocket. In the United States, cocaine is sold to school-children as "coke" or "flake," and the vendors of cakes and candies offer it to be snuffed through a small tube.

Owen C. We know, however, that drugs are sold to children on the streets of the larger cities of Canada, a fact recently verified by the Federal Hlealth Department according to despatches from Ottawa, in February of this year. In an address delivered in before the Annual American Prison Association, one of the speakers said: "It is rare to come in contact with young men between sixteen and twenty-one who are confirmed alcoholics.

Compare this with narcotic addicts. The general rule is that addiction is present mainly in youths from sixteen to twenty-one years of age. This is really the development age. Narcotics hinder development, and boys and girls are forever wrecked while still in a development period. Distracted parents come pleading for aid arid advice. The complaint is always the same, i.

Once drug addiction becomes firmly established a positive cure is difficult, and the only way it can be accomplished is through institutional care and treatment. The effect we refer to is mentioned by Dr. Ernest Bishop who says of drug-disease that its physical symptomatology are manifested in infants newly-born of addicted mothers, and that many of these infants die unless opiates are administered to them.

This, he declares, is a well-known fact among those who have made open-minded study and research into this condition. Such a case has been described recently by Dr. Laase, Associate Surgeon of St. He says this child was born of an opium addict and displayed all the symptoms of addiction. The mother, who was twenty-seven years of age, had used opiates for two years. The baby was healthy and well-developed but, from the moment of birth, was very restless and had all the symptoms of drug-need, which could only be relieved by a drop of paregoric in water, this being placed in the infant's mouth by means of an eye- dropper.

It was necessary to give this because the infant was showing signs of collapse and of general convulsions. When lactation was fully established, the necessity for the administration of paregoric ceased, the child obtaining the supply through the mother's milk. S a narcotic, heroin is three times stronger than morphine and takes effect much more quickly. Its continued use will establish a habit in four or five weeks. Because of this mischievous fiction, it has now become so desperate a menace that the Academy of Medicine and the Psychiatric Society of New York have recommended that the Federal Government take such measures as are feasible to abolish its manufacture altogether.

Heroin is morphine treated with acetic acid. A person who habitually uses it has a yellow face as though from jaundice. It is claimed that heroin-users desire to spread the habit more than any other drug addicts. Experts say that heroin and morphine are more difficult to withdraw than any of the narcotics, a sudden stoppage leading to a physical collapse and dangerous disorders. Because she had always had exemplary manners, and because something in her eyes made one think of the flicker of crossed wires, I concluded she was ill, and probably had a degree or two of fever.

This was how I came to restrain the hot words that were on the tip of my tongue, and to observe her instead. Presently, it was noticeable that she kept dropping her eraser; that she looked at the type of the machine as though her vision was impaired, and that she worked the keys in a jumpy manner. Two days later, she was removed to a hospital suffering from a complete nervous collapse, alleged to be the result of heroin addiction.

When last heard of, she was in a pitiful condition. While insanity sometimes results in the advanced stages of drug-addiction, it is not nearly so common as the public suppose. A statistical study of drug addiction which we have received from Dr. Horatio M. Pollock, Ph. Pollock also found that the native born were more liable to drug psychoses than the foreign born; HEROIN SLAVERY 57 that the cases rank high with respect to literacy; that seventy per cent, recover within one year from the time of admission, While five and one half per cent, die within the same period.

Approximately nine per cent, of the drug cases discharged are re-admitted. While insanity within the meaning of the Criminal Code is not so frequent among addicts, it must be borne in mind that through excessive use of narcotics, or by means of sudden withdrawal, the victim undergoes what the French call "a crisis of the nerves" which amounts to insanity, but which is only temporary. When a man is criminally inclined, cocaine and heroin produce delusions which actually make him "insane and dangerous to be at large.

McConnell of Winnipeg, writing in this connection, "that the majority of petty thieves and hold-up men are usually addicts and they are very dangerous, and if ever they ask you to throw up your hands, I would advise you to do so at once, because they have to get the money in order to get the drugs. This winter, two women were brought before me, one of whom was charged with inflicting grievous bodily harm on the other.

The accused, a slip of a girl weighing ninety-eight pounds, had stabbed an older woman with a large sharp-pointed blade. When the blade was raised for the second stroke, the victim grasped it in her naked hand, with the result that her fingers were almost severed as the blade was drawn away. The police gave evidence that the little girl, when arrested, was plainly under the influence of a narcotic. She apparently had not recovered when brought into court where, with a face like a grey paving-stone, she sat huddled up and wholly inattentive to the proceedings.

Persons suffering from cocaine-insanity have deep- seated delusions concerning electricity. They see moving-pictures on the wall in which a hideous head, toothed and grisly, appears to insult and threaten them. Maybe the words of Shakespeare describe their condition as well as any others, "A fool! I met a fool in the forest. It need scarcely be explained that a mentally abnormal person whose abnormality has been further augmented by the use of noxious drugs, can hardly be kept from committing crime. Indeed, one of the Western police magistrates in writing me on the subject says, "The taking of drugs is undoubtedly the cause of a great deal of crime because people under its influence have no more idea of responsibility of what is right or wrong than an animal.

People in every stratum of society are afflicted with this malady, which is a scourge so dreadful in its effects that it threatens the very foundations of civilization. The former have the financial means to buy the drug while the latter have not, and when the drug is withheld in either case, you will find them exactly alike. When we come to speak on the effect of prohibitory laws on drug-addiction, we are confronted with a great difference of opinion and an almost entire absence of data.

In a letter received in December, , from Dr. Raymond F. I have seen no substantiation of this statement and very much doubt its authenticity. The decrease of crime which undoubtedly goes hand in hand with the decrease of drunkenness is a stronger argument for maintaining the present difficulties in obtaining alcohol.

They tell us, too, that when a man has become intoxicated on an alcoholic beverage and is unable "the morning after" to obtain a further supply on which to sober up, he resorts to "a shot" of morphine, or "a bhang" of cocaine, thus acquiring an appetite before unknown to him. While many wise and experienced persons are thinking this way, because these statements are more frequently heard from the mouths of immoral and immoderate persons, we are apt to dissent from them on principle. Yet, while these statements do not rest on well-substantiated data, by reason of their probability and extreme plausibility, they cannot be lightly set aside.

Because of this imminent danger in connection with prohibition, it devolves upon our governments, both Federal and Provincial, to take immediate and drastic steps to protect the public from the illicit vending of narcotics, and to enact such stringent measures as will effectually stamp out the drug traffic. By far the largest fight which temperance workers have yet undertaken is in front of them, and we are persuaded they will not strike flag. The gods go mad, and the world runs red With a vintage pressed from the fats of hell. HEN one comes to consider the classes who have become inveterate users of soporific drugs, their reasons for indulging themselves, and how demoralized they become through the habit, one is apt to recall the remark Thackeray made about music, "For people who like that sort of thing, I should think it would be just about the thing they would like.

Because it enhances their capacity for work, students "cramming" for an examination will take cocaine until, ultimately, cocaine takes them. For the time being the drug enables them to rein their will to the track but, after a while, they break and so lose in the long run. Having used the parlance of the ring, it might be relevant to say here that, in spite of heavy penalties inflicted on the guilty jockey, a horse is frequently "doped" or "doctored" before a race in order that it may become capable of extra effort.

The effect wears off in about half an hour. In schools of music, there are students who take cocaine or heroin for the mental effect before doing "their turn" at recitals. They may take this to relieve their nervousness or because they have an idea this lends brilliance to their technique. Indeed, they will tell you quite frankly that it does. With only a limited space at our disposal, we dare not touch on the writers who take to drug dosage, thinking thereby to find "the magic nib. These are "the profane persons" described by Old Gill, the commentator, "whose writings are stuffed with lies, lewdness, and all manner of wickedness.

People suffering from pulmonary consumption take to smoking opium with the belief that it is a specific. Every Chinaman who uses "the dreamful pipe"- will declare this to be a fact. That smoking affords some measure of relief is borne out by Dr. John Gordon Dill in the Lancet, who states that opium, when prepared for smoking in a certain way, eases the cough and acts as an expectorant. On the other hand, physicians tell us that consumption and nephritis are two of the diseases which most frequently kill morphino- maniacs.

Others take it because they are jaded, neurasthenic, or just naturally sluggish. Added to these, are the great army of men and women who are never happy unless indulging themselves. If you sit at a window on a main thoroughfare of any city and watch the crowd go by, you will observe that nearly every second person is smoking, chewing gum or munching sweets.

As you watch and watch, it seems as if the whole world has become one horrific mouth that can never be satisfied. Maybe it is from this constant habit of tickling the palate or soothing the nerves, that our people are turning to strange and poisonous drugs. Who can say? Certain classes of society seem to take to certain drugs. We have shown that students, sports and debauchees are the votaries of cocaine or heroin, or of mixed addiction. It has been pointed out by Mr. Towns that reputable doctors, writing on this subject, have alleged that fifteen per cent, of their own profession are addicted to drugs.

The particular drugs were not specified, but it is known that pharmacists, druggists, veterinarians, dentists and nurses take more readily to morphine than to other drugs. This fact is difficult of explanation, unless it is by reason of their skill in using the hypodermic needle, or because morphine may be more easily available. A single drug user in a community should be considered a menace to the whole of it.

Nor does this remark apply solely to urban districts. One is amazed to find how the use of degrading drugs is becoming common in rural communities. Last summer a father came to my office and related how his daughter, aged fifteen, had become inordinately attached to a woman from the city, who had been boarding at his farm. When the woman left the girl could hardly be restrained from following, declaring she must have some of the white powder the lady used to let her snuff from a handkerchief.

The father—a simple, unschooled man—had heard of a mysterious concoction called a love philtre, and was persuaded that something of this nature had been administered to the child, thus bringing her in thrall to the woman. The story of the girl's "spells," however, were strongly symptomatic of cocaine dosage. After a while, the girl seemed less nervous, but one night, a letter was taken from her desk showing an arrangement whereby she was to meet this woman, when a young man would take the girl on to the United States.

It was to frustrate these nefarious plans, and to obtain protection against the woman's alleged machinations, that the father came to me. In Canada we are altogether too lax concerning subtle crimes on the person, which, utterly destroying the victim, amount almost to a murder. Patent medicines which have a wide sale secured this because of the lure of cleverly worded advertisements. How far the public have been misled by these advertisements may be gleaned from the fact that some of the so-called "cures" for the drug-habit were found to be only means of selling other narcotics. After using certain nerve remedies which produced sleep, people naturally drifted into the use of cocaine, morphine, and other undisguised somnifacients.

Under the amendments to the Proprietary and Patent Medicine Act, assented to July 7th, , this will now be difficult, if not impossible. Clause 7 of this Act provides that "no proprietary or patent medicines shall be manufactured, imported, exposed, or offered for sale, or sold in Canada, a if it contains cocaine or any of its salts or preparations.

In a charge preferred before us, against a woman for illegally keeping intoxicating liquor for sale, the liquor turned out to be chloral-hydrate, commonly known as "knock-out drops. Although as black as the proverbial ace- of-spades, the woman set up a defence that the stuff was used by her as a complexion beautifier. Another woman, during an investigation into her mental condition, successfully argued that she was not at all insane but only distracted from the use of snuff, she having twelve boxes of it hidden away in her trunk. The boxes were found to contain cocaine, or "happy-dust.

The Scandinavians in Western Canada, in order to set up what they call "a quick jag," drink ether mixed with alcohol, or with water. There is a significant Latin proverb, to wit, Who will guard the guards? IT would be difficult, as before intimated, to tell all the sources from which these inhibited drugs are procured. In large centres, in Canada, physicians have learned not to leave their vials containing narcotics lying around loosely. The careless handling of drugs in some hospitals has given opportunity for addicts to steal narcotics.

Writing of an improvement in this respect, the Superintendent of a large Canadian hospital, says, "In our hospital, to-day, we have the Drug Control System, by which every tablet is accounted for and no stock can be renewed without an accounting of what has been done with the last. Addicts have told us that, on laying their money on a counter, they have been instructed by the salesman to help themselves from a certain drawer, and that no record was kept of the sale. These clerks steal from their employers either for their own use or to sell it; often for both.

It is well-known that prostitutes procure these drugs from clerks and solicit orders from other prostitutes, getting a large profit on the sales. This surreptitious commerce in narcotics is largely carried on in dance-halls and cafes, where incorrigible or feeble-minded girls think, by indulging in these drugs they are "good Indians" and "playing the game.

These men are the limber-tongued, unregenerate rascals who so frequently talk about "the sex" and of "lovely woman," but who beat her upon nearly every opportunity. Since prohibitory liquor laws have come into force, and pharmacists may only sell intoxicants upon a doctor's prescription, we have learned that there is nothing to prevent the filling of a forged prescription.

No obligation is imposed upon the pharmacist to verify the paper. Where sedative drugs are concerned, the same conditions prevail. A druggist who is careless, or who is not conscientious, may fill scores or even hundreds of prescriptions which are forgeries. In one drug store the police found a box containing 50, of these prescriptions, all filled in the preceding ten months. In most instances, in Canada, when the Police, under Clause 5 of the Opium and Drugs Act, examine the books of the drug stores, they find that only a small portion of the narcotic drugs purchased from the wholesalers can be accounted for.

The pharmacist explains that physicians purchased these by the vial, for medicinal purposes, and that no accounting of the sales is kept. But, apart from self-medication by means of quack nostrums, it seems like elaborating the obvious to explain how the majority of chronic inveterates have acquired the drug-habit by means of prescriptions given by the family physicians with the best of intentions. As a matter of fact, the opiate group of medicines in the Schedule of the Statutes, above quoted, are probably those we could least spare. One eminent authority said "There is no drug which will replace clinically and therapeutically the opiate group.

At present, it is indispensable in meeting emergency indications as is the scalpel of the surgeon. Having received relief from the derivatives of the poppy- flower, she wrote thus:—"She is the beneficient fairy that has soothed the hurt of the world. She slows the living engine, cools the flaming wheels, and banks up the fires so that the flow of force is only passive.

Thus she proves herself a defender of vitality, a repairer of waste, and a balm for hurt minds. Good Princess Poppy! Nevertheless, the morphine tablet, prescribed or administered by the physician, is often a mere labour- saving device for the time being, and not infrequently proves to have the same effect as sitting on the safety- valve. A drug, too, which relieves pain, if persisted in, ultimately causes pain. Even novices like ourselves know this.

An eminent Canadian physician writing on this says, "Of course some acquire the habit innocently, and physicians may be to blame for it, as when postoperative conditions are accompanied by prolonged pain, or when a patient has what is considered a more or less chronic disease The profession must always be careful to very guardedly prescribe such drugs. Apart from the errors he may make, such a physician attracts to himself the addicts in the community who want prescriptions or drugs in bulk, and we have found it is practically impossible to render a conviction against him under the provisions of the Opium and Drugs Act.

The enactment allows a doctor to prescribe narcotics for "medicinal purposes," but does not interpret these words. The Act has apparently been framed on the hypothesis that every physician is a reputable man and strictly professional, whereas such is not uniformly the case. In this connection, we do not hesitate to say that as physicians are granted special privileges, they should receive special punishments for violation of the Act. When an Information is laid against a registered medical practitioner who is believed to be exploiting addicts, if he cannot persuade the magistrate to allow a withdrawal of the charge, he takes refuge under these uninterpreted words, setting up the defence that he was treating the addicts with the object of ultimately effecting a cure by means of "gradual reduction" or "ambulatory method" of treatment.

Reputable physicians would welcome a strict construction on this Clause by the Federal authorities, or some amendment whereby they would be able to prescribe legitimately without coming under suspicion of nefarious practice.

THIRD EDITION

When the patient leaves his care, such physician must report in writing to the Medical Board the result of his treatment The Whitney law of New York requires that all prescriptions given by physicians for "gradual reduction" shall be reported to the Commissioner at Albany, and gives this official the discretion to deal with any physician who appears to be abusing the privilege.

That some such method should become law in all the Canadian provinces seems evident. Even with these restrictions, it cannot be claimed that the unscrupulous doctor has been prevented from prescribing noxious drugs ad libitum. In April of last year, in New York City, it was found that thirty physicians had formed themselves into a drug ring and were writing separately as many as two hundred prescriptions a day, some of these men doing no other practice. The principal drug dispensed was heroin. If you say these conditions are peculiar to the United States, and do not concern us in Canada, you speak without advisement.

From records in our possession—these being known to the police—we have the names of Canadian doctors who have, until the present, been prescribing, as high as grains of cocaine in each prescription, or equal to four hundred quarter-grain tablets, or average adult doses. In three months, this winter, it was found that a certain physician in a Western town, had issued fifty- two prescriptions for sixty grains of morphine and three thousand grains of cocaine. His extravagance is by no means peculiar, several other doctors having records approximately high.

In this same period of three months, one man not any considerable distance from where we write, was able to get from a drug company, by means of a doctor's prescription, nearly seven thousand grains of opium. Most of us will refuse to credit their claim. These facts are now reported to the Federal Health authorities and one is almost safe in saying that, for the future, these physicians may be depended upon to co-operate with the Regulations of the Department or take the direful consequences—that is to say if they have no dealings with those who truckle in contraband.

Having in mind the honorable, self-sacrificing character of the average medical doctor in Canada, one dislikes to show that there are such kittle-kattle in the profession, but, contrariwise, because of the deplorable results arising from this wholesale prescribing of devilish narcotics, one must, perforce, tell some small part of the story. After the arrest of the New York doctors, and the raid on the drug stores, above referred to, the authorities found it necessary to open a public clinic to supply the addicts with small doses of drugs to relieve their sufferings and prevent an outbreak of crime.

On this occasion Mrs. Sarah Mulhal, the Advisory Administrator of the Narcotics Bureau, was obliged to call fifty nurses to her aid, and five hundred women as volunteer workers. About this time, Commissioner Copeland of the New York Health Department was asked whether it was possible to cure the craving for drugs by a sliding scale of doses, and replied, "Yes, if we can control the supply.

Coiild such a reduction be legally called a treatment for cure of the habit under the law, or would the physician and druggist be liable? Such a case would certainly make him liable for arrest. The plain intent of the law is that the progress of the treatment must be freedom from use of the drug within a reasonable time.