Limitation (Littérature Française) (French Edition)
Practitioner of a wide range of forms—including the medieval fixed forms of the ballade and the rondeau , chansons, blasons poems employing descriptive details to praise or to satirize , and elegies —Marot preferred the epistle for its freedom of style and the epigram for its vivacity. With the epistle he reached the summit of the highly subtle art by which he defined himself, a poet of the court and also a Protestant, aspiring to a pure and simple happiness of true religious faith.
His return to Paris in made him no more prudent; he continued his translations of the Psalms, a brilliant literary achievement, publishing the first collection in While Marot was translating the Psalms, other poets were engaged with a different kind of mysticism. It is more varied in its inspirations and in its technique; Ronsard, for example, uses a wide range of Classical models to write poems in different registers to different mistress-figures, and he often brings more sensuous variations to the stylized motifs.
There is also a conscious foregrounding of a more worldly dimension, especially in Ronsard. Whatever form inspiration took—love, nature, knowledge—Art dominated them all. Refining the forms elaborated by fellow-craftsmen from the high ages of human art, the poet demonstrated his ability to match the creative powers that move the cosmos.
Ronsard eloquently defended the cause of Catholic reform against the Protestant Reformers and their aristocratic allies in his Discours — In the massacre that began on St. The plays of Robert Garnier frequently took subjects of biblical as well as humanist inspiration that reflected the pain of all those caught in the violence of the times Les Juifves , He studied to perfection the three traditional languages, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; and he was familiar with modern languages, especially Italian. In his youth, between and , he wrote love poetry modeled on Petrarch. His master poem, Les Tragiques , composed for the most part at the end of the century but not published until , is a visionary, apocalyptic account of the civil conflict from the perspective of the Protestant Reformers.
The production of poetry in the 16th century did not outdo the other genres in quantity. Prose was slow in freeing itself from the heavy yoke thrown over it by the medieval humanists. Humanism rightfully claims Pantagruel ; Eng. Pantagruel and Gargantua ; Eng. Gargantua , with their celebrated giants, feasting, drinking, and discovering and proclaiming the new and better ways of learning, of the conduct of war and peace, and of the true religion, which, for Rabelais resided in individual prayer, charity, and the virtuous life. He called Erasmus his spiritual father and befriended numerous Protestants.
But uniquely, this voice of Evangelical humanism speaks through the thundering roll of a laughter that spares no one and nothing, keeping its best aim for the worst, most benighted, and most grotesque exponents of the medieval theology, scholarship, medicine, and law that sought to stifle the emerging individual. Rabelais dedicated his Tiers Livre to Marguerite de Navarre , patron of Evangelical humanist reform and author of religious poetry. Engaged in his youth in politics, war, and diplomacy alongside his peers, Montaigne largely withdrew from public life in and thereafter spent much of his time in his library, writing the works that established him as the founder of the tradition of self-exploration and self-writing as well as an emblem of modern liberal individualism.
The first two volumes of his Essais Essays were published in A third was added in , along with an enlarged edition of the first two. When he died in , he left his own copy of the Essays , with numerous revisions written in his own hand. This revised text was published in But as he wrote, Montaigne became more and more his own subject, exploring through introspection his own experience—not just as his own but also as the mirror of the universal human condition, a life subject to death and defined by the relative circumstance of historical place, moment, and society in which it is situated.
Remembering, analyzing, imagining, considering the operations of his intellectual faculties and his bodily functions, observing himself sick, well, aging, Montaigne is especially concerned with the concept of change. The form he conceived to carry the results of his meditations is perfectly adapted to this purpose. The language is clear, simple, and measured, giving a calculated but effortless appearance of spontaneity, engaging readers in a conversation that takes them gently into the paths of self-discovery. The legacy to posterity of this most moderate and self-moderating of thinkers is a double one.
At the beginning of the 17th century the full flowering of the Classical manner was still remote, but various signs of a tendency toward order, stability, and refinement can be seen. A widespread desire for cultural self-improvement, which is also a sign of the pressures to conformity in a society constructing itself around the king and his court, is reflected in the numerous manuals of politesse , or formal politeness, that appeared through the first half of the century; while at the celebrated salon of Mme de Rambouillet men of letters, mostly of bourgeois origin, and the nobility and leaders of fashionable society mixed in an easy relationship to enjoy the pleasures of the mind.
Such gatherings did much to refine the literary language and also helped to prepare a cultured public that could engage in the serious analysis of moral and psychological problems. Its usual functions concerned the standardization of the French language. Manners are stylized, settings are conventional, and the plot is highly contrived; but the sentiments of the characters are highly refined, and the psychology of their relationships is sharply analyzed.
Malherbe called for a simple, harmonious metre and a sober, almost prosaic vocabulary, pruned of poetic fancy. By: Paul Cooke. By: Maaike Koffeman. Balzac et Sand. Editor s : Lucienne Frappier-Mazur. By: Marc Smeets. By: Alexandra K. By: Martin Calder. By: Matthew MacNamara.
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Les lieux dans Histoire de ma vie de George Sand. By: Cam-Thi Doan Poisson. Editor s : M.
Aurnague , A. Condamines , J. Maurel , Ch. Molinier and Cl. By: Mireille Naturel. Editor s : Kathryn Karczewska. Editor s : Catherine Nesci. By: Brigitte le Juez. By: Sahar Amer. Science in the Writing of Queneau and Ponge. By: Chris Andrews. Intertextuality in Four Novels by Boris Vian. By: Alistair Charles Rolls. By: Peter Broome. The Drama of the Text. Editor s : Michael Freeman and Jane H. Editor s : John Parkin.
By: Daniel Acke. By: Manet van Montfrans. By: Jacques la Mothe. Travail du texte et histoires du sujet dans Portrait du soleil. By: Christa Stevens. By: Philippe de Remi. By: Russell Ganim. By: Walter D. By: Luke Bouvier. Editor s : David A. Le plaisir du texte. By: Patricia Hannon. By: Marjolein van Tooren. By: Catherine Attwood.
Editor s : Yvette Went-Daoust. Editor s : Martine Debaisieux. By: Jacqueline Letzter. Lectures plurielles. By: Nathalie Roelens. By: Marc Lapprand. Actes du Colloque de Sheffield, Mars Editor s : David H. Walker and Catharine S. By: C.
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Editor s : Marie-Christine Kok Escalle. Les Advis, ou, les Presens de la Demoiselle de Gournay, Editor s : Jean-Philippe Beaulieu and H. By: Pauline A. Editor s : Jan Baetens and Ana Gonzalez. Editor s : Douglas Kelly. By: Peter Wagstaff. Editor s : Michael Bishop. By: Isabelle Constant. By: Anne E. Editor s : John Anzalone. The Old French Roman de Renart.
By: J. Editor s : Keith Cameron and James Kearns. By: John Campbell. By: Carl Vetters. By: Alan Raitt. Editor s : Kajsa Meyer. By: Martijn Rus. Formula and Parody in Old French. By: Anne Elizabeth Cobby. Dialogue entre Duras et Freud. By: Lia van de Biezenbos. Editor s : Leo H. Between the end of the s and the beginning of the s, public authorities in France succeeded, through education efforts and a regulatory framework, to change French hunting practices.
The objective was to restore and to develop lowland ungulate populations as a wild renewable resource. To that end, hunting was remodeled according to concepts characteristic for central Europe, and in particular the Germanic model. At the same time, a very strong increase in wild boar populations occurred and this species progressively causes more and more serious damages to human activities. But while only the hunters regulate wild boar numbers, and also finance public wildlife administration as well as the compensation of damages to agriculture, their number shows a clear and continuous decline.
Confronted with the need to control these game populations, the hunting administration encourages, or even imposes the return to a more efficient way of hunting and introduces less restrictive hunting rules. This constitutes a new conceptual revolution. Hunting has the effect of regulating game but that is not the reason why hunters practice it.
Hunters do not consider themselves agents of a public wildlife control service. I have shown that the motivation of hunters comes from their passion for hunting. For hunters, hunting cultures and traditions, symbolic representations, the relationship to game and nature, constitute the fundamental and essential elements of the hunting act. Marked by an abrupt, but indecisive de-industrialisation, a Romanian mountainous commune has been grappling with a long-term conflict surrounding the re-commencing of industrial activity under the guise of a large-scale, mainly privately-financed mining project.
The following paper will look into how two instances of pig slaughter illustrate and articulate tensions generated by the mining debate, as well as being inscribed within wider constellations of long-lasting development, memorialisation, embodiment of skill, and memorialisation of the past as a critique of the current situation of the commune. With the examples of duck decoys and wild boar hunting in the Netherlands, I aim to exemplify the way in which the materialities and human-animal relations embedded in co-created hunting landscapes transgress notions of nature and culture, hunting and trapping and domestic and tame.
The entangled multi-species trajectories of duck decoys show how the Dutch landscape once was shaped around numerous preindustrial machines designed to catch birds, which worked through an intimate attunement between humans and animals. This presentation aims to add to the growing number of work that complicates common characterizations of human-animal relationships and the ways in which animals are considered in place and out of place, while actively moving between these. This paper uses material from anthropological research on hunting in Northern Cyprus, to explore a Gramscian informed approach to an intersection.
Including, how hunters, hunted and the deeds of hunting are made. I critique the perspective of hunting as technique and propose a focus on hunting technology. This enables me to address the leeway and space of hunting and its adaptation, rather than seeing these as a medium through which adaptation takes place. This is then used as a comparative case to evaluate the adaptation of hunting technology in Northern Cyprus. I conclude that hunting is stuck in a double-bind between being modern and the limitations on adaptation this entails, but propose that intellectual endeavours can be applied to shift this double-bind.
Wild boar numbers are increasing all over Europe, accompanied by habituation to urban habitats in several European cities.
Notes de littérature
Wild boar presence in Barcelona is related to proximity to CNP and watercourses entering the urban area of Barcelona, as well as green area surface, proximity to cat colonies and fragmentation. Wild boar presence is more common from March to October, with high temperatures and periods without rain. Wild boar population in the CNP exceeds the carrying capacity of the natural environment, probably due to anthropogenic food resources, and most likely will continue to increase if unmanaged. The most efficient measures to reduce wild boar abundance and the related conflicts were reducing carrying capacity, as well as juvenile and yearling survival rates of both male and female.
In recent years it has been common for researchers interested in recreational hunting, to comment that this is a neglected, or shunned, topic. It might not even be worth thinking in such terms. However, what I do see are studies that engage with the rich experiential, cultural, social, economic, political worlds of hunting.
In this presentation I would like to offer some thoughts about the mosaic pieces, elements, the individual studies, that begin to allow us to configure the complex worlds of hunting, some thoughts on the pieces that are still necessary to picture these worlds even more richly. Hunting in France is a highly controversial practice, particularly because of the animal death it produces.
These controversies raise two issues around the human-animal relationship: 1 the spatial and in visible dimension of animal death and 2 the link between the meaning of animal death and the status of these animals. However, hunting wild boars brings high visibility and presence of death through its materiality blood, flesh, corpses, weapons, noise of weapons, sounds of dogs, etc.
This paper tries to understand how this tendency of immateriality and invisibility of death is negotiated in the practice of hunting which, on the contrary, materializes death. The animal is taken either as a species belonging to an ecosystem, or as a sentient animal, or as an animal with agency.
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According to these figures, animals take the status of objects objectivation or subjects subjectivation and their death takes more or less value. In so doing, their rooting and snuffling bodies leave dramatic material traces and introduce new possibilities of encounter. How these materialise and are perceived, however, depends upon the different human and nonhuman capacities, mobilities, and temporalities of forest lives. In Africa, the Bechuanaland Protectorate began its transition to independence by developing the cattle industry and beef export into one of the countries primary economies.
But this development has not come without significant consequence. Trade agreements with British and other parts of Europe stipulated that veterinary fences needed to be erected to protect cattle herds from contamination from wildlife carrying various diseases, perhaps most notably Foot and Mouth Disease FMD , and the potential spread of those diseases to Europe.